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Special Senses. Chapter 8. Eye Anatomy. Accessory Structures Eyelids Commissures Palpebral fissure Tarsal gland Lacrimal Apparatus Lacrimal gland Lacrimal canaliculi Lacrimal sac Nasolacrimal duct. Extrinsic Eye Muscles. Layers of the Eyeball. Fibous Layer: Schlera and Cornea

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Special senses

Special Senses

Chapter 8


Eye anatomy
Eye Anatomy

  • Accessory Structures

    • Eyelids

    • Commissures

    • Palpebral fissure

    • Tarsal gland

    • Lacrimal Apparatus

      • Lacrimal gland

      • Lacrimal canaliculi

      • Lacrimal sac

      • Nasolacrimal duct



Layers of the eyeball
Layers of the Eyeball

  • Fibous Layer: Schleraand Cornea

  • Vascular Layer: choroid, ciliary body, ciliaryzonule, iris and pupil

  • Sensory Layer: retina and pigmented layer


Retina neural layer
Retina (Neural Layer)

  • Ganglion cell axons form optic nerve

  • Bipolar cells

  • Photoreceptors

    • Rods=grey tones and dim light, peripheral and night vision

    • Cones=color, fovea centralis is place of greatest visual acuity


Photoreceptors
Photoreceptors

  • Visual Pigment (Rhodopsin)

    • Opsin + Retinal

  • Light strikes Rhodopsin causing opsin and retinal to separate

  • Retinal is converted to vitamin A

  • Retinal is recombined with opsin in the dark

  • Different forms of opsin allow us to see color

    • Red

    • Green

    • Blue


Color blindness
Color Blindness

  • http://colorvisiontesting.com





Inner ear
Inner Ear

  • Vestibule =static equilibrium

  • Cochlea =hearing

  • Semicircular Canal =dynamic equilibrium


Equilibrium
Equilibrium

Static

Dynamic

Positioning when moving

Semicirular canals

Crista Ampularis

Cupula and hair cells

Cochlear branch of vestibulocochlear nerve

  • Positioning a

  • Maculae

    • Otolithic membrane

    • Otoliths

    • Hair cells

    • Vesibular branch of vestibulocochlear nerve


Hearing
Hearing

  • Cochlea has three membranous chambers

    • ScalaVestibuli

    • Scala Media =cochlear duct=spiral organ of corti

    • Scala Tympani


Cochlear duct
Cochlear Duct

  • Stapes causes vibrations in the oval window

  • Vibrations cause “waves” within fluid of cochlear chambers

  • Pressure waves cause vestibular and tectorial membranes to move

  • Movement of tectorial membrane stimulates hair receptors which transmit the signal to the cochlear nerve


Chemical senses
Chemical Senses

  • Olfaction and Gustation detect stimuli dissolved in water

  • Smell and Taste work together

  • Combinations of receptors allow us to smell and taste complex substances

  • Both olfaction and gustation utilize receptors on hair cells


Homeostatic imbalances
Homeostatic Imbalances

  • Conjunctivitis

  • Colorblindness

  • Nightblindness

  • Glaucoma

  • Otitis Media

  • Deafness

    • Conduction deafness

    • Otosclerosis

    • Sensorineural deafness

  • Meniere’s Syndrome

  • Strabismus

  • Amblyopia

  • Macular Degeneration


Developmental aspects
Developmental Aspects

  • Sense organs are formed early but not all are fully functional at birth

  • Taste and hearing are fully functional in the womb

    • Fetuses develop taste and sound preferences while developing

  • Smell is functional at birth but has a learned component

  • Vision is not fully functional until about 5 years of age