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Scaffolding Instruction. Assisting Reading Performance Workshop 2. What Is a Scaffold?. A scaffold is a temporary learning aid designed to help the student grow in independence as a learner.

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scaffolding instruction

Scaffolding Instruction

Assisting Reading Performance

Workshop 2

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

what is a scaffold
What Is a Scaffold?
  • A scaffold is a temporary learning aid designed to help the student grow in independence as a learner.
  • Once the skill the scaffold is intended to help has been mastered, the scaffold should be withdrawn.

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

what is scaffolding instruction
What Is Scaffolding Instruction?
  • A set of pre-reading, during-reading, and post-reading activities specifically designed to assist a particular group of students in successfully reading, understanding, learning from, and enjoying a reading passage.

(Graves & Graves, 2003)

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

why use scaffolding instruction
Why Use Scaffolding Instruction?
  • Scaffolding a reading passage offers the teacher a flexible plan that takes into consideration:

1. The particular group of students

2. The text they are reading

3. The purpose for reading the text

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

why use scaffolding instruction5
Why Use Scaffolding Instruction?

Scaffolding a reading experience also provides:

1. Temporary support for students to use in understanding and discussing the reading selection.

2. Methods to enhance student engagement with the text, allowing for deeper understanding of knowledge.

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

what advantages does scaffolding instruction offer
What Advantages Does Scaffolding Instruction Offer?
  • A temporary support structure to assist the student’s comprehension of text.
  • A support structure that allows students to complete tasks and gain knowledge.
  • Activities which can be used to self-monitor and internalize reading skills.
  • Activities which provide ways for students to discuss and write about reading passages.

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

what advantages does scaffolding instruction offer7
What Advantages Does Scaffolding Instruction Offer?
  • Scaffolding provides for a plan to develop independent readers
  • Scaffolding is a temporary support plan which should be removed when the leaner reaches an independent reading level and can self-monitor their reading.
  • Scaffolding includes an instructional framework.

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

what are the components of an instructional framework scaffold
What Are the Components of an Instructional Framework Scaffold?
  • Initiating students toward reading at independent levels.
  • Constructing meaning from the text.
  • Utilizingtext meanings to apply or act upon the meanings students have constructed.

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

initiating component
Teachers should:

Introduce content

Assess prior knowledge

Identify purpose for reading

Stimulate curiosity

Develop a strategic plan

Students should:

Preview the content

Assess prior knowledge

Build upon prior knowledge

Determine purposes

Raise questions/issues

Recognize a need to know

Develop a strategic reading plan

Initiating Component

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

constructing component
Teachers should consider:

Class size

Needs of students

Diverse learning styles

Complexity of subject matter

Time spent on a reading assignment

Students should :

Engage

Interact

Process information

Associate with life experiences

Organize

Think about thepassage

Constructing Component

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

utilizing component
Teachers should:

Explain

Clarify

Model

Demonstrate

Guide the student using the scaffold activity selected

Students should:

Write ideas

Synthesize information

Clarify and organize ideas

Refine concepts

Move toward independence from using the scaffold

Utilizing Component

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

how are scaffolding instruction activities sequenced
How Are Scaffolding Instruction Activities Sequenced?
  • Before Reading Scaffolds
  • During Reading Scaffolds
  • After Reading Scaffolds

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

before reading scaffolds
Before Reading Scaffolds
  • Two Minute Preview
  • K-W-L

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

two minute preview description
Two Minute Preview Description
  • Provides students with an overview of the selection
  • Helps students develop a plan for reading a selection
  • Previewing a reading passage can help students become active and engaged with the text.

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

two minute preview procedures
Two Minute Preview Procedures
  • Can be used with pairs or whole class
  • Good scaffold for predicting text structure and organization of content
  • Teacher leads the class in discussion of preview findings

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

two minute preview guide
Two Minute Preview Guide

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

k w l scaffold
K-W-L Scaffold
  • A widely used strategy to foster active reading, consists of three steps:
  • K- What do I already know?
  • W-What do I want to find out?
  • L-What did I learn, and still need to learn?

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

why use the k w l scaffold
Why Use the K-W-L Scaffold?

Provides a structure which:

  • Activates prior knowledge
  • Builds upon prior knowledge
  • Elicits student input

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

sample k w l scaffold chart
Sample K-W-L Scaffold Chart
  • K
  • W
  • L

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

during reading scaffolds
During Reading Scaffolds
  • Key Questions
  • Note Taking: Do it Yourself

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

the key questions scaffold
The Key Questions Scaffold

This scaffold strategy is designed to help students process the basic elements of of ( Who? What? When? Where? And How?)

of what they read.

Students use this scaffold to note and present information to a small group or whole class.

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

why use the key questions scaffold
Why Use the Key Questions Scaffold?

This scaffold is used:

  • When working with readers who have trouble comprehending at the literal level.
  • To present the new information helps integrate it into existing schemata.
  • When teachers need a quick,informal assessment tool to judge student reading performance on a text passage.

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

the key questions procedure
The Key Questions Procedure
  • Teacher models five key questions in a selection
  • Students read and record information to answer the five key questions using the key questions worksheet.
  • Students may design a flipchart of notes.
  • Students present the information orally to the class

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

the key questions scaffold student worksheet
The Key Questions Scaffold:Student Worksheet

Use the key questions scaffold below with the reading assignment.

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

note taking do it yourself
Note Taking: Do It Yourself
  • Effective note taking is one of the most important skills students can develop.
  • Real value in note taking is revisiting the notes and reacting, organizing, and using them in some way.
  • Revisiting notes and using them in classroom instruction leads to deeper understanding and integration into one’s schema.

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

note taking do it yourself26
Note Taking: Do It Yourself
  • There are many types of note taking systems.
  • Any note-taking system should present information in an organized manner that can be adapted for verbal and visual presentations.

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

note taking using the r3 system
Note Taking Using the R3 System

Students perform the following actions:

  • Read the text passage
  • Record important notes
  • Respond to the notes by writing questions and answering those questions
  • React by writing a summary about what they are learning.
  • Make associations to learn new material by linking to existing knowledge

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

note taking using the r3 system28
Note Taking Using the R3 System

Use the R3 note taking scaffold below.

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

after reading scaffolds
After Reading Scaffolds
  • Think Aloud Strategy
  • Writing to Learn Strategy
  • The Last Word

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

think aloud strategy
Think Aloud Strategy
  • This scaffold helps students understand the thinking required by a specific task.
  • The teacher models the thinking process as she/he reads aloud.
  • Students see how the teacher constructs meaning from unfamiliar vocabulary, and new text content.

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

think aloud strategy scaffolding
Think Aloud Strategy Scaffolding
  • Includes the following activities:
  • Reading aloud
  • Developing questions
  • Verbalizing thoughts
  • Making predictions as you read
  • Explaining how one connects new content with prior knowledge.

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

think aloud activities
Think Aloud Activities

Coping strategies you can model include:

  • Making predictions
  • Forming a hypothesis
  • Creating analogies
  • Verbalizing Fix-Up Strategies
  • Using retelling to review a process or procedure

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

think aloud guide sheet
Think Aloud Guide Sheet

None A Little Most of Always

the time

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

writing to learn strategy
Writing To Learn Strategy
  • Can be incorporated across the curriculum
  • Helps students personalize learning
  • Encourages high-level thinking skills
  • Assists in helping students construct meaning from the text
  • Writing activities are brief

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

writing to learn strategy steps
Writing To Learn Strategy Steps

1.Select the concept you want students to explore.

2. Assign the Writing to learn activity

any time during the class.

3. Give students three to five minutes think time to consider a response

4. Have students write five minutes on the topic.

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

writing to learn strategy36
Writing To Learn Strategy
  • Writing to learn discussion can be centered on the written response
  • Writing to learn helps students reflect on information under discussion.
  • Writing to learn can be effect in helping

Students construct summaries of their reading assignment.

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

the last word strategy
The Last Word Strategy
  • The Last Word is a writing to learn activity used at the end of a discussion or reading.
  • Students spend the last ten minutes of class completing the Last Word Writing guide.
  • In the guide, students write the teacher a brief letter about information they do not understand, need clarified, or reviewed.

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

the last word strategy guide
The Last Word Strategy Guide

The Last Word

Name _________, Date____, Class______

Today, I understood:__________.

Today, I did not understand:________.

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

writing to learn guidelines
Writing to Learn: Guidelines
  • Identify appropriate topic and writing activity.
  • Keep content the central focus.
  • Provided sufficient writing time.
  • Design the writing activity to review, question and summarize knowledge
  • Provide time to students to discuss their written responses.

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

scaffolding instruction review
Scaffolding Instruction Review

In this program, we have presented:

  • A rationale for scaffolding.
  • A reading frame work for using scaffolding: before, during and after the reading process
  • Six scaffolding activities teachers can integrate with their content reading assignments.

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

resources used in this program
Resources Used in This Program
  • Billmeyer, Rachel & Barton, Mary Lee. ( 1998) TeachingReading in the Content Areas: If Not Me, Then Who?, McREL, Aurora, CO.
  • Brozo, W.G., & Simpson, M.L. (1999) Readers, Teachers and Learners: Expanding Literacy Across the Content Areas, Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ.
  • Graves, Michael & Graves, Bonnie. ( 2003) Scaffolding Reading Experiences: Designs for Student Success, Christopher-Gordon Publishers: Norwood, MA.
  • Stephens, Elaine & Brown, Jean. (2000) A Handbook of Content Literacy Strategies: 75 Practical Reading and Writing Ideas, Christopher-Gordon Publishers: Norwood, MA.

Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA