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Main Ideas The Emancipation Proclamation freed slaves in Confederate states.

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Main Ideas The Emancipation Proclamation freed slaves in Confederate states. African Americans participated in the war in a variety of ways. President Lincoln faced opposition to the war. Life was difficult for soldiers and civilians alike. Big Idea

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Main Ideas

  • The Emancipation Proclamation freed slaves in Confederate states.
  • African Americans participated in the war in a variety of ways.
  • President Lincoln faced opposition to the war.
  • Life was difficult for soldiers and civilians alike.
  • Big Idea
  • The lives of many Americans were affected by the Civil War. Ellie Flynn

Emancipation Proclamation

  • Millions of enslaved African Americans were at the heart of the nation’s bloody struggle.
  • Abolitionists urged Lincoln to free the slaves.
  • Lincoln declared, “There is no reason in the world why the negro is not entitled to all the natural rights numerated in the Declaration of Independence-the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”
  • Lincoln found:
  • Emancipation-freeing of slaves, a difficult issue
  • Did not believe he had constitutional power
    • Worried about the effects Margaret Mahlke

Lincoln Issues the Proclamation

  • Northerners opinions of abolishing slavery:
  • Democratic Party opposed emancipation
  • Abolitionists argued that war was pointless without freedom for African Americans.
  • Some predicted it would anger voters. Lincoln worried about losing support for war.
  • On September 22, 1862, Lincoln issued Emancipation Proclamation,freeing slaves only in areas controlled by Confederacy
    • Military order that freed slaves only in areas controlled by the Confederacy
    • Impossible to enforce where it actually applied
    • Went into effect on January 1, 1863

Margaret Mahlke


Reaction to the Proclamation

  • African Americans gave thanks on December 31, 1862, New Year’s Eve
  • Abolitionists rejoiced.
  • Fredrick Douglas called Jan. 1, 1863, “the great day which is to determine the destiny not only of the American Public, but that of the American Continent.”
  • Some noted that system of slavery was still used in loyal slave states.
  • Proclamation encouraged many enslaved African Americans to escape when Union troops came near.
  • Loss of slaves crippled the South’s ability to wage war.

Margaret Mahlke


This picture shows Lincoln and his cabinet after the signing of the Declaration of Independence.

  • This is a quote of Lincoln about slavery.

Margaret Mahlke


African Americans voluntarily participated in the war.

  • The right to join the army in South Carolina was given to contrabands, or escaped slaves by the War Department.
  • The 54th Massachusetts Infantry was mainly African American and was celebrated for its bravery.
  • In the Union army about 180,000 African Americans served.
  • Ellie Flynn

Congress began allowing the Army to sign up African American as laborers in July 1862.

  • African Americans in the army received $10 a month, while white soldiers got $13.
  • By Spring 1863, African American army units were proving themselves in combat.

Ellie Flynn


The flyer use to recruit African Americans for the war.

Ellie Flynn


The 54TH Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment was one of the first official black units in the U.S. armed forces. Their courageous assault on Fort Wagner played a key role in bringing about an end to slavery. Ellie Flynn


“ Once let the black man get upon his person the brass letters, U.S.; … and a musket on his shoulder and bullets in his pocket, and there is no power on the earth which can deny that he has earned the right to citizenship.”

  • - Fredrick Douglas, quoted in The life and Writings of Fredrick Douglas

Ellie Flynn

president lincoln faced opposition to the war

President Lincoln faced opposition to the war

Lincoln running the war, he had to deal with tensions in the North.

Bridget Bailie


The mouths rolled on the death was increasing

  • A group of northern Democrats began speaking out of the war
  • Led by U.S. Representative Clement L. Vallandigham of Ohio
  • Copperheads – were Midwesterners that sympathized the south
  • Believed the war was not necessary also called for it to end
  • Lincoln saw the copperhead as a threat to the war effort
  • To silence them Lincoln suspended habeas corpus, orprotection against unlawful imprisonment, to jail the enemies of the Union

Bridget Bailie

northern draft

In march 1863 war critics erupted

  • Critics erupted when Congress approved the draft, or forced military service
  • For $300, men could buy their way out of service
  • For unskilled workers, this was a year’s wage
  • Critics of the draft called the Civil War a “rich man’s war and a poor man fight
  • In July 1863 African American were brought to New York City to replace striking Irish dock workers
  • Bloody rioting broke out in New York, killing 100 people
                  • Bridget Bailie
Northern draft
northern draft cont

Tense situation the northern democrats nominated General George McClellan for president in 1864

  • Called for immediate end to the war
  • Lincoln defeated McClellan in the popular vote
  • Winning by about 400,000 out of 4 million
  • The electoral vote was in Lincoln favor 212 for Lincoln and 21 for McClellan
Northern Draft cont.

Bridget Bailie

main idea 4 life was difficult for soldiers and civilians alike

Main Idea 4 :Life was difficult for soldiers and civilians alike

The way of life for civilians and soldiers was drastically changed by the war.

Riley Hornilla

on the battlefield

Civil War armies fought using ancient battlefield formations that produced massive casualties

    • Endless rows of troops fired directly at one another
    • Soldiers would attach bayonets to their guns
    • Men died to gain every inch of ground
  • Used to communicate using drum signals
  • Some drummers – only nine years old
  • Often saw deadly combat conditions
  • Today, battlefield communications are primarily electronic
  • Riley Hornilla
On the Battlefield


Union Signal Corps

Modern battlefield communications

Riley Hornilla

on the battlefield cont

Doctors and nurses in the field saved many lives

    • Many soldiers endured the horror of having infected legs and arms amputated without painkillers
    • Had no medicines to stop infections that developed in wounds
    • Infections from minor injuries caused many deaths
  • The biggest killer in the Civil War was not the fighting
  • The biggest killer in the war was disease, such as typhoid, pneumonia, and tuberculosis
  • Nearly twice as many soldiers died of illnesses as died in combat

Riley Hornilla

On the Battlefield cont.
prisoners of war

Military prisoners on both sides lived in misery

  • Large camps were in Andersonville, Georgia, and Elmira, New York
    • Soldiers were packed into camps meant to hold only a fraction of their numbers
    • They had little shelter, food, or clothing

Starvation and disease killed thousands

Riley Hornilla

Prisoners of War
life as a civilian

Riley Hornilla

  • The war effort involved all levels of society
  • Women and males too young or too old for military service worked in factories and farms
  • Economy in the North boomed as production and prices soared
  • Lack of workers caused wages to rise by 43 percent between 1860 and 1865
  • Women were the backbone of civilian life
  • On farms, they performed daily chores usually done by men
  • One visitor to Iowa in 1862 reported that he “met more women…at work in the fields than men.”
  • Southern women also managed farms and plantations.
Life as a Civilian
important women

Riley Hornilla

  • Brought strength and comfort to many wounded Union soldiers
  • Organized the collection of medicine and supplies for delivery to the battlefield
  • Worked in field hospitals
  • Referred to as “angel of the battlefield”
  • Soothed the wounded and the dying
  • Her work formed the basis for the future American Red Cross
  • Sally Louisa Tompkins established a small hospital in Richmond, Virginia
  • End of war – major army hospital
  • Jefferson Davis made her a captain in the Confederate Army
Important Women
sally louisa tompkins

Riley Hornilla

Clara Barton

Sally Louisa Tompkins


BookChapter or Section Deverell, William, and Deborah Gray White. "Daily Life during the War." United States History. Austin: Holt, Rinehart and Wintson, 2009. 528-34.      Print.

  •   Video Clip (Online)General Video ContentView live Web pageArchive & annotate pageMassachusetts 54th Regiment. History. A&E Television Networks, 2014. Web. 15 May      2014. < american-civil-war-history/videos/gilder-lehrman-massachussetts-54th>.