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AJ 50 – Introduction to Administration of Justice. Chapter 4 - Policing: Purpose and Organization. The Police Mission. What are the main purposes of Police? Enforce Laws Investigate Crimes/Arrest Offenders Prevent Crime Keep the Peace Serve the Community. Law Enforcement.

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aj 50 introduction to administration of justice

AJ 50 – Introduction to Administration of Justice

Chapter 4 -

Policing: Purpose

and Organization

the police mission
The Police Mission

What are the main purposes of Police?

  • Enforce Laws
  • Investigate Crimes/Arrest Offenders
  • Prevent Crime
  • Keep the Peace
  • Serve the Community
law enforcement
Law Enforcement
  • Responsible for enforcing federal, state, and local laws
    • Traditional role as “crime fighters”
  • Majority of time spent on non-emergency calls for service
    • Only 10% - 20% of calls require law enforcement
  • Enforcement priorities come from Departments
  • Role Models of society
    • Held to higher ethical standard
    • On and off-duty behavior always being judged
investigation and arrest
Investigation and Arrest
  • Most law enforcement response and activity is REACTIVE
    • Something happens, someone calls, police respond to call
    • Rare to intervene in crime actually in progress
  • Phases of Investigation
    • Crime occurs/someone calls police
    • Patrol officer responds/investigates/writes report
    • Report referred to Detective Bureau
    • Follow-up investigation may result in arrest
crime prevention
Crime Prevention
  • Anticipation, recognition, and appraisal of a crime risk and initiation of some action to eliminate or reduce it
    • PROACTIVE approach to criminal activity
    • Old concept, new implementation through dedicated resources
  • Techniques
    • Access control, theft-deterrence, lighting, landscaping, CPTED
  • Programs
    • Operation ID, Neighborhood Watch, Crime Stoppers
keeping the peace
Keeping the Peace
  • What is a cop’s official title in CA?
    • Peace Officer (PC § 830.1)
  • High priority of maintaining Peace and Order in society
  • Enforcement of Quality-of-Life Offenses
    • Minor or “petty” offenses that tend to disrupt maintenance of peaceful existence
      • Disturbing the Peace (415 PC)
      • Loitering/Panhandling
      • Vandalism/Graffiti
      • Public Drinking/Intoxication/Drug Use
  • Broken Windows Theory
serving the community
Serving the Community
  • Direct public access to police services just a phone call away!
  • 10%-20% of calls actual emergencies, majority are “calls for service”
    • Lost and found
    • Minor accidents
    • Barking dogs, other disturbances
    • Suspicious persons/circumstances
    • Check the welfare
levels of police jurisdiction
Levels of Police Jurisdiction
  • Federal Departments (page 115)
    • Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Homeland Security, Interior, Justice, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, US Postal Service
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
    • Mission Statement
      • Protect and defend US against terrorist threats
      • Uphold and enforce criminal laws
      • Provide leadership and criminal justice services
    • 56 field offices, 400 satellite offices
levels of police jurisdiction1
Levels of Police Jurisdiction
  • State-Level Agencies
    • Most state police agencies formed as link between federal and local jurisdictions
  • CA State Police Agencies
    • ABC, CHP, Fish & Game, State Parks, State University Police
levels of police jurisdiction2
Levels of Police Jurisdiction
  • Local Agencies
    • City (Police) and County (Sheriff) departments responsible for local law enforcement services
  • Police primary jurisdiction within city limits
  • Sheriff primary jurisdiction within unincorporated areas of county
    • Some smaller cities contract with local Sheriff for police services
    • Sheriff responsible for jail operations, prisoner transportation, and court services
police administration
Police Administration
  • Management responsible for
    • Directing, coordinating, controlling…
    • Personnel, resources, and activities…
    • In crime prevention, apprehension of criminals, recovery of stolen property, and community service
  • Managers are usually sworn personnel who have promoted to higher ranks
police organization and structure
Police Organization and Structure
  • Line Operations
    • Field Operations
    • Activities devoted to day-to-day police work
  • Staff Operations
    • Support Services
    • Administration, Human Resources, Training
  • Chain-of-Command
    • Hierarchical line of communication and authority between higher and lower levels (ranks)
    • Quasi-military structure and organization
  • Span-of-Control
    • Number of personnel or units under one supervisor’s authority
epochs of policing refer to chart page 126
Epochs of Policing(Refer to chart, page 126)
  • Political Era: 1840’s–1930’s
    • Police served interests of politicians in power
    • Spoils Era
  • Reform Era: 1930’s–1970’s
    • “Professional” model of policing removed police from political influence
    • Vollmer’s reforms
  • Community-Policing Era: 1970’s–Present Day
    • Focus on needs of Community
    • Cooperative effort, working with community
  • Homeland-Security Era: 2001–Present Day
    • Focus on prevention of terrorism
    • Increased cooperation between agencies/jurisdictions
policing styles
Policing Styles
  • Watchman Style
    • Concern for law-and-order maintenance
    • Crime control more important than crime prevention
  • Legalistic Style
    • Strict enforcement of Letter of the Law
    • May ignore other “social” problems
  • Service Style
    • Focus on “helping” rather than strict enforcement
    • Social-assistance, drug-treatment programs, etc.
police community relations
Police-Community Relations
  • Evolved out of civil unrest of 1960’s
  • Effort to re-unite Police and Community
    • Police and Community must work together
    • Police derive legitimacy from Community
    • Focus on positive Police-Community relations
    • Less emphasis on apprehending criminals
  • PCR Programs
    • Crime Prevention/Property Identification
    • Neighborhood Watch
    • Drug Awareness
    • Victims’ Assistance
team policing
Team Policing
  • Developed in 60’s and 70’s as extension of PCR model
  • Maintained specific “team” of officers in same geographical area (beat)
  • Benefits?
    • Beat integrity
    • Familiarization with people/area
    • Trust and cooperation
    • Officers allowed to handle full investigations
evolution of community policing
Evolution of Community Policing
  • Strategic Policing
    • Traditional goal of enforcement using innovative enforcement techniques
      • Intelligence, Undercover Ops., Surveillance, Forensics
  • Problem-Oriented Policing
    • Address underlying social problems as contributors to crime/criminal behavior
      • Cooperation between agencies to attack overall problem
  • Community Policing
    • Based on cooperative partnership between Police and Community
      • Attempt to reduce crime/fear of crime and improve quality of life for members of community
community policing
Community Policing
  • Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act (1994)
    • Funding, Training, Technology
  • Goals of Community Policing
    • Police and Community work together
    • Identify/address needs of Community
    • Allow Community more say in prioritizing problems and how Police respond to them
    • Proactive vs. Reactive approach to crime
  • DOJ created COPS to administer funds
    • 100,000 CP Officers by 1999
    • Additional $500 million made available for 50,000 more
    • 2002: “Homeland Security through Community Policing”
obstacles to community policing
Obstacles to Community Policing
  • Some communities/community members remain dissatisfied with police services
    • Distrustful of changes
  • Disagreement over priority of community needs
  • Power of Police Subculture
    • Some departments/officers unwilling to change from traditional roles of LE
    • Still see primary role as crime fighter and success measured by number of arrests, citations, etc.
    • May offer CP programs but not truly supportive
    • Resentment and hostility sometimes mutual
law enforcement support
Law Enforcement Support
  • LEAA (1969-1982)
    • Attempt to combat crime through funding of crime prevention programs
    • Expired after $8 billion spent/no significant impact
  • Scientific Police Management (1970’s)
    • Application of social sciences to police administration
      • Increase police effectiveness
      • Decrease citizen complaints
      • Enhance use of available resources
  • Evidence-Based Policing (EBP)
    • Using research as evidence for evaluating police practices and to guide decision-making
kansas city experiment 1974
Kansas City Experiment (1974)
  • Year-long study of Preventive Patrol
    • Southern part of city divided into 15 beats
      • 5 = no change in patrol services
      • 5 = patrol officers/services doubled
      • 5 = no patrol service, response to calls only
    • Citizens not notified of experiment/changes
  • Results
    • No impact on preventable crimes
    • Citizens unaware of change in patrol services
    • No impact on fear of crime, per citizen survey
  • Effects
    • Directed Patrol
    • Call Prioritization
discretion of individual officers
Discretion of Individual Officers
  • The opportunity to exercise choice in daily activities and decisions
    • Where/how to patrol
    • Who to stop/detain
    • When to warn/cite/arrest
  • Discretion of individual officers is arguably more important than department policy!
factors that affect discretionary decision making
Factors That AffectDiscretionary Decision-Making
  • Officer’s background
    • Personal values, prejudices, etc.
  • Suspect’s characteristics
    • Age, gender, socio-economic status, etc.
  • Department policy
    • Strict, loose, mandatory arrests, etc.
  • Community interest
    • Concerns with certain behaviors/crimes
factors that affect discretionary decision making1
Factors That AffectDiscretionary Decision-Making
  • Pressure from victims
    • Cooperative, uncooperative, victim assistance
  • Disagreement with certain laws
    • Public opinion, minor violations
  • Available alternatives
    • Treatment programs, counseling services
  • Personal beliefs/practices of officer
    • Off-duty behavior may affect outlook