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Regional Urbanization. Canadian Geography 120 Mr. D. The Atlantic Region. Atlantic cities and urban settlements influenced by the sea For most cities on the coast, the sea has provided a livelihood for many of the people

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regional urbanization

Regional Urbanization

Canadian Geography 120

Mr. D

the atlantic region
The Atlantic Region
  • Atlantic cities and urban settlements influenced by the sea
  • For most cities on the coast, the sea has provided a livelihood for many of the people
  • Atlantic Canada’s cities were among Canada’s first major settlements, but with younger western cities growing rapidly and immigrants bypassing the Atlantic, their relative size as declined.

The largest cities in each of the four provinces (1996 approx) St Johns, Charlottetown, Saint John (Moncton 2007), and Halifax all have natural harbours. Three of these cities are capitals of the provinces.

the atlantic region continued
The Atlantic Region (continued)
  • Halifax is the only metropolis of the Atlantic region, with over 370 000 people (Statistics Canada 2006)
    • Its site was determined by the huge and deep harbour where the British established a fortified naval base in 1749
    • The city has been a military fortress ever since and remains the major base for Canada’s navy
    • Is the busiest port and major industrial centre in Atlantic Canada
    • A large oil refinery is one of the many industries spawned (generated) by the port
    • Has become the commercial, financial and cultural centre of the region
the atlantic region continued1
The Atlantic Region (continued)
  • St John’s is the second largest city in the Atlantic region with over 181,000 (Statistics Canada 2006)
    • Serves as the political, commercial, and cultural centre for NF
    • Secondary industries are mostly based on fish processing and ship repair
the atlantic region continued2
The Atlantic Region (continued)
  • Saint John - population of about 122,000 (Statistics Canada 2006)
    • Major industrial centre with two large pulp and paper plants
    • Canada’s largest oil refinery
  • Moncton – population of 126 000
the atlantic region1
The Atlantic Region
  • Charlottetown is small with 58 000 (Statistics Canada 2006)
    • Capital and regional centre for P.E.I.
the central region
The Central Region
  • The Great Lakes-St. Lawrence waterway is a natural transportation corridor which has encouraged the development of settlement in this region
  • Canada’s two largest cities (Toronto and Montreal) were first settled by the French as military forts and fur-trading posts
  • The lakes and rivers remained important as settlers moved into central and western Canada, since travel by land was so difficult. One of the earliest industries was logging, and the rivers were essential for floating the logs to the ports for shipment overseas.
  • Our national capital first began as Bytown, a lumber centre of the Ottawa River
  • Railways – gave settlements a chance to develop – Mining towns were dependent on the railways to move their products. Some mining communities (Sudbury) were actually discovered during the building of railways. Railways gave a big boost to mining and pulp and paper industries
the central region continued
The Central Region (continued)
  • The cities of southern Ontario and Quebec have attracted industry and immigrants thanks to: varied resource base, excellent transportation facilities, energy supply, large domestic market, and close to huge American market
  • Montreal and Toronto had excellent locations for their development as key transportation and communication centres, expanding also in manufacturing and commerce
  • For most of Canada’s history, Montreal the dominant urban centre In recent decades, Toronto has become the nation’s leading industrial, commercial and financial centre.
  • Montreal still retains a special position as the great urban centre of French Canada – the second largest French-speaking city in the world
  • The population of Montreal and Toronto alone accounts for one out of every four Canadians
the prairie provinces
The Prairie Provinces
  • Most cities started as fur trading posts (i.e. Edmonton and Winnipeg). As in other regions, settling on major rivers was a key factor
  • Railway was important in stimulating urban growth in the West. Edmonton, Winnipeg, Calgary, and Moose Jaw greatly expanded when chosen as railway division centres
  • The establishment of government administrative centres also encouraged urban growth
  • Regina began as the headquarters for the North West Mounted Police (today’s RCMP) and administrative centre for the entire North West Territories – training for RCMP is still in Regina today
  • With many settlers coming in the late 1800s, agriculture boomed (i.e. Saskatoon). Most agriculture towns did not grow beyond small local centres
the prairie provinces continued
The Prairie Provinces (continued)
  • In recent years agriculture towns have been shrinking or disappearing as people move to the cities
  • Discovery of oil in Turner Valley made Calgary Canada’s oil capital. After WWII oil discovered near Edmonton gave that city a boom also, but Calgary still remains the financial and administrative centre of the industry
  • In 1900, Winnipeg, “Gateway to the West,” was the most important city in the prairies. Today is has one of the lowest unemployment rates (6.6% in Canada)
  • Key industrial sectors of Winnipeg include: financial services, manufacturing, agri-food processing, transportation, distribution, information technologies and telecommunications, film production, and health industries
the pacific province
The Pacific Province
  • Location of urban centres in B.C. is primarily related to its resource industries. Transportation routes are the second major factor in urban development in B.C.
  • After fur trade, the gold rush of the late 1850s was the first event that attracted European settlers to B.C. in any significant number. Goldfields were in the interior plateau so most early settlements were there, or in the Fraser River Valley, along the gold rush route
  • Vancouver, Canada’s third largest city, was uninhabited until 1885, when it was chosen as the western terminus of the CPR. The city’s excellent harbour became Canada’s major port for Pacific trade. By the 1920s, it had become the primary metropolitan centre in western Canada, a position once held by Winnipeg
the pacific province continued
The Pacific Province (continued)
  • Vancouver – Canada’s number 1 port continues to grow as Canada’s trade with the Far East increases; wheat and potash from the prairies, coal, minerals and forest products from B.C.
  • Vancouver provides the financial and commercial base for mining, forestry and fishing industries, as well as processing their products
  • Victoria, B.C.’s second city was another early fur trading post and government centre, today remains as the provincial capital.
  • Victoria is Canada’s chief west coast military base
  • Most other cities owe their existence to resource industries, such as Prince Rupert (fishing), Kitimat (hydropower), Port Alberni (forestry) and Trail (mining)