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RHETORIC Notes. Pre-AP To AP English. Rhetoric “ rhetor ” Greek persona of communicator.

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rhetoric notes

RHETORIC Notes

Pre-AP To AP English

rhetoric rhetor greek persona of communicator
Rhetoric“rhetor” Greek persona of communicator
  • Art of finding and analyzing all the choices involving language that a writer, speaker, reader, or listener might make in a situation so that the text becomes meaningful, purposeful, and effective for readers or listeners.
  • Art of communication = art of persuasion.
where is rhetoric found
Where is Rhetoric found?
  • Speeches
  • Cartoons
  • Advertisements
  • Letters
  • Poetry
  • Prose
  • Essays
  • Magazine and newspaper articles on controversial issues
early history
Early History
  • Aristotle (384-322 BCE)
  • Greek Philosopher = wrote on logic, natural sciences, metaphysics, ethics, politics, and rhetoric (many followers and brought the ideas to the western world)
  • Defined rhetoric as the ability to see; persuasion
  • Believed rhetoric created community and good will.
  • Create the basic principles for Rhetoric (ethos, pathos, logos).
rhetorical triangle
Rhetorical Triangle

WRITER (communicator)

Intention

AUDIENCE

Subject/

CONTEXT

appeals
Appeals

Pages 49 - 50

slide9

P

A

T

H

O

S

watch the commercial
Watch the Commercial
  • Which rhetorical appeal the commercial is targeting? Explain why.
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=owGykVbfgUE&feature=g-hist
rhetorical question

Rhetorical Question

Question that is not answered by the writer, because the answer is obvious or is just yes or no. It is used for effect, or provocation, or for drawing a conclusionary statement from the facts at hand.

slide15

Anaphora

Winston Churchill:

“We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills.”

anaphora

Anaphora

Repetition of the same word or words at the beginning of successive phrases.

slide17

Antithesis

“One small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.”

antithesis

Antithesis

Clear, contrasting relationship between 2 ideas by joining them together or juxtaposing them, often in parallel structure.

euphemism
Euphemism
  • The act or an example of substituting a mild, indirect, or vague term for one considered harsh, blunt, or offensive.
chiasmus

Chiasmus

Mirror image/opposites

overstatement hyperbole

Overstatement/Hyperbole

Making something sound worse than it is

“going to the dentist is the worst thing ever”

diction

Diction

Ex. Colgate toothpaste is dynamite.

Ex. Mary is a Queen.

allusion1
Allusion
  • An expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly; an indirect or passing reference
slide31

Repetition

Repetition

Repetition

slide33

Mood

Mood is a state of mind or emotion

slide35
Tone
  • Manner in which an author expresses his/her attitude.
ambiguity

Ambiguity

Doubtfulness or uncertainty as regards to an interpretation.

slide41

Concession

Acknowledgement of personal flaws or flaws to a proposal; speaker centered.

paradox

Paradox

A seemingly contradictory statement that may nonetheless be true.

Ex. When the hurlyburly’s done, when the battle’s lost and won (Macbeth I.i.1).

oxymoron1

Oxymoron

Paradox reduced to 2 words, to show a strong relationship.

parallelism
Parallelism
  • They are laughing at me, not with me."(Bart Simpson, The Simpsons)
  • "Buy a bucket of chicken and have a barrel of fun."(slogan of Kentucky Fried Chicken)
  • "Immature poets imitate; mature poets steal."(T.S. Eliot)
  • "I don’t want to live on in my work. I want to live on in my apartment."(Woody Allen)
parallelism1

Parallelism

Similarity of structure in a pair or series of related words, phrases, or clauses. Also called parallel structure.

asyndeton
Asyndeton
  • “You can barbecue it, boil it, broil it, bake it, saute it. Dey’s uh, shrimp-kabobs, shrimp creole, shrimp gumbo, pan fried, deep fried, stir-fried.” (Forest Gump)
examples of asyndeton
Examples of Asyndeton
  • “The dove, splashed, floated, splashed, swam, snorted.”
  • “He was a bag of bones, a floppy doll, a broken stick, an maniac.”
asyndeton1

Asyndeton

A style that omits conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses.

polysyndeton
Polysyndeton
  • “We lived and laughed and loved and left” (James Joyce, Finnegans Wake)
  • “Oh my piglets, we are the origins of war-not history’s forces, nor ideas, nor kinds of government, nor causes, nor religions” (Katherine Hepburn, in The Lion in Winter)
polysyndeton1

Polysyndeton

A style that employs many conjunctions (opposite of asyndeton)

anticipate an objective
Anticipate An Objective
  • Addressing a possible protest Before the Opposition Can Raise It.

Ex. Lawyers

reduce to the absurd
Reduce to the Absurd
  • Statement showing the utter foolishness of another statement.

Ex.

  • Rocks have weight, otherwise we would see them floating in the air.
  • There is no smallest positive rational number, because if there were, it could be divided by two to get a smaller one
alliteration
Alliteration
  • Alliteration occurs when a series of words in a row (or close to a row) have the same first consonant sound.
  • For example, “She sells sea-shells down by the sea-shore”
  • or “Peter Piper Picked a Peck of Pickled Peppers”
anadiplosis
ANADIPLOSIS
  • “I am Sam, Sam I am” – Dr. Seuss
  • "They call for you: the general who became a slave ; the slave who became a gladiator; the gladiator who defied an Emperor" - Joaquin Phoenix (from the movie Gladiator )
anadiplosis1
ANADIPLOSIS
  • Arhetorical device that repeats one or several words that end one clause or sentence and begin another.
hypophora
Hypophora
  • "When the enemy struck on that June day of 1950, what did America do? It did what it always has done in all its times of peril. It appealed to the heroism of its youth" - Dwight D. Eisenhower
hypophora1
Hypophora
  • Raise a question and then immediately answer it.