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UNIT 3: FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY & IMPRESSIONS. Objective: Identifying Male vs Female . DO NOW: What differences in bones do you think exist between males and females? If you missed the quiz on Friday see me now. What is Forensic Anthropology?.

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objective identifying male vs female
Objective: Identifying Male vs Female

DO NOW: What differences in bones do you think exist between males and females?

If you missed the quiz on Friday see me now

what is forensic anthropology
What is Forensic Anthropology?

The field of study that deals with the analysis of human skeletal remains resulting from unexplained deaths

development of bone
Development of Bone

Bones begin as cartilage then harden to form bone (ossification)

206 bones in human body
206 Bones in Human Body

Joint- location where bones meet

Cartilage- found at ends of bones and protect bone

Ligaments- connects bones to bones

Tendons- connect muscle to bone

basic bones
Basic Bones


Contains bones of the

cranium and face

basic bones1
Basic Bones


Upper arm bone


Forearm bones

basic bones2
Basic Bones


Thigh bone


Lower leg bones

basic bones pelvis
Basic Bones - Pelvis


Triangular bone at the end of the spine


Hip Bones

male or female
Male or Female?
  • Female- Skeleton is much smoother
  • Male-
    • Skeleton is thicker, rougher, bumpier
    • Muscles are more developed so where they attach need to be stronger
  • ex. knee
m vs f orbits
M vs F: Orbits



M: square F: round

m vs f the jaw
M vs F: The Jaw



M: square – 90 deg

F: round, V-shape - >90 deg

m vs f frontal bone
M vs F: Frontal Bone



M: low and sloping

F: high and rounded

m vs f occipital bone back of skull
M vs F: Occipital bone (back of skull)



M: bump present F: bump absent

m vs f shape of pelvic cavity
M vs F: Shape of Pelvic Cavity

M: Heart shaped, narrow

F: Oval shaped, wider

m vs f subpubic angle
M vs F: Subpubic Angle


M: 50 – 82 deg F: 90 deg

m vs f sacrum
M vs F: Sacrum


M: long, narrow, curves inward

F: short, broad, curves outward


Complete Identifying male or female activity

closure q s from activity
Closure Q’s from Activity:

Case #1:

Round eye orbits, Subpubic angle of 103°

Case #2:

Narrow pelvis, Sloping forehead

Case #3:

Smooth skull, Sacrum curves outward

objective determine gender of bones
Objective: Determine Gender of Bones

DO NOW: What is the shape of the pelvic cavity in females and why?

objective determining age
Objective: Determining Age

DO NOW: Why are male bones rougher than females?

determining age
Determining Age

Can determine age by looking at certain bones for cartilage still remaining

age sutures are where skull bones connect
Age: Sutures are where skull bones connect

Lamboidal suture (back of head) – 30 yrs

Coronal suture (front of head) – 50 yrs

age epiphysis
Age- Epiphysis
  • The presence of a line that marks where cartilage is replaced by bone
  • The age of completion varies for each bone
age teeth
Age: Teeth

Have deciduous teeth fallen out?

Have wisdom teeth erupted?


When the head of a long bone has fused with the shaft it can help determine age


Humerus head fused: 4 – 6 yrs

Humerus head fused to shaft: 18 - 20

case study
Case Study

Complete the snaggletooth killer case study

objective video case study
Objective: Video case study

DO NOW: If the skull is completely fused what does that indicate about the age of the individual?

objective video case study1
Objective: video case study (first 48)

Complete the case review sheet

objective determine height of victim
Objective: Determine Height of Victim

DO NOW: How can teeth be used to determine age?

****Hand in snaggletooth killer case study

  • Measuring bones can help to approximate height
  • Gender and race should be considered if known
determining height
Determining Height

A 41.3 cm Caucasoid male tibia was found in a wooded area.

How tall was the this person?

41.3 cm x 2.39 + 81.68 = 180 cm (5’-11”)

  • Complete Lab on Determining Height
  • Work in groups of 2 or 3
  • To convert cm to feet:
    • Multiply by 2.54 then divide by 12
lab determining height
Lab: Determining Height

Do Now: What is the largest bone in the human body?

objective facial reconstruction
Objective: Facial Reconstruction

DO NOW: What other useful things can be determined by bones besides age, height and sex?

race ancestry
Race (ancestry)
  • Can be difficult due to interracial people so not as significant as other factors
  • Best determined with skull and femur
  • Three categories are Caucasian, African, and Asian

Mongoloid/Asian Skull

Caucasian/European Skull

Negroid/African Skull

facial reconstruction
Facial Reconstruction
  • Size and shape of bones vary in people
  • Facial markers are placed on the skull and clay is applied to follow the height of the markers
  • Today computer programs can do this
  • Programs can adjust features and age a person
facial reconstruction3
Facial Reconstruction

dna evidence
DNA Evidence

Bones contain little nuclear DNA but do contain mitochondrial DNA

Can compare mitochondrial DNA with living relatives on the mother's side to identify bones

skeletal trauma analysis
Skeletal Trauma Analysis
  • Forensic anthropologists determine if damage to bones occurred before or after death
  • Antimortem- before death
  • Perimortem- at or around time of death
  • Postmortem- after death

There are distinctions between damage caused by weapons and those created by the environment after death

types of trauma
Types of Trauma

Sharp-force trauma, blunt force trauma, and gunshot wounds have distinct patterns

the body farm
The Body Farm

objective case study john wayne gacy
Objective: case study John Wayne Gacy

Do Now: Can DNA be found in bones?

objective case study john wayne gacy1
Objective: case study John Wayne Gacy

Complete case study on john waynegacy

objective video case study john wayne gacy
Objective: Video Case Study John Wayne Gacy

closure q s
Closure Q’s

How many people did he kill?

Why was he called the killer clown?

Did he target a particular type of victim? If so what type?