Concepts in beef cow nutrition
Download
1 / 117

- PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 120 Views
  • Updated On :

Concepts in Beef Cow Nutrition. Aaron Stalker University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Introduction. Feed costs Major factor in economic efficiency Harvested forages Majority of total feed costs. Annual operating costs per cow Northern Great Plains. $419. USDA, Economic Research Service, 2002.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about '' - colm


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Concepts in beef cow nutrition l.jpg

Concepts in Beef Cow Nutrition

Aaron Stalker

University of Nebraska-Lincoln


Introduction l.jpg
Introduction

  • Feed costs

    • Major factor in economic efficiency

  • Harvested forages

    • Majority of total feed costs


Annual operating costs per cow northern great plains l.jpg
Annual operating costs per cow Northern Great Plains

$419

USDA, Economic Research Service, 2002


Annual operating costs per cow northern great plains4 l.jpg
Annual operating costs per cow Northern Great Plains

$419

46%

USDA, Economic Research Service, 2002


Biological priority for nutrients l.jpg
Biological Priority for Nutrients

Priority Function

1 Maintenance

2 Growth

3 Milk Production

4 Reproduction


Plant cell l.jpg
Plant Cell

  • PROTEIN

  • SUGARS

  • STARCH

  • PECTINS

  • FATS

CELL

CONTENTS

PRIMARY

WALL

SECONDARY

WALL

CROSS SECTION


Inside l.jpg
Inside

NEUTRAL

DETERGENT

FIBER (NDF)

SECONDARY WALL

HEMICELLULOSE

LIGNIN

ACID

DETERGENT

FIBER (ADF)

CELLULOSE

PRIMARY WALL

OUTSIDE


Ruminal microorganisms l.jpg
Ruminal Microorganisms

  • Ferment Structural Carbohydrates

    • Volatile Fatty Acids

      • Acetate, Propionate, Butyrate

  • Microbial Crude Protein


What is mp l.jpg
What is MP?

  • Metabolizable protein (MP) system

    (1996 NRC)

    • Acknowledges ruminal microorganisms

      • Protein (nitrogen) requirement

      • Separate from host

    • Degradable intake protein (DIP)

      • Fraction of total protein degraded in rumen

    • Primary source of nitrogen for microorganisms


What is mp15 l.jpg
What is MP?

  • Metabolizable protein (MP) system

    • Undegradable intake protein (UIP)

      • Fraction of total intake protein not degraded in rumen

      • Passes to small intestine

    • Metabolizable protein

      • Sum of digestible microbial protein and undegradable intake protein


Slide16 l.jpg

Dietary

Protein

RUMEN

SMALL

INTESTINE


Slide17 l.jpg

Dietary

Protein

SMALL

INTESTINE


Slide18 l.jpg

Degradable Intake Protein

Dietary

Protein

SMALL

INTESTINE


Slide19 l.jpg

Degradable Intake Protein

Dietary

Protein

SMALL

INTESTINE


Slide20 l.jpg

Degradable Intake Protein

Dietary

Protein

SMALL

INTESTINE


Slide21 l.jpg

Degradable Intake Protein

Dietary

Protein

SMALL

INTESTINE


Slide22 l.jpg

Degradable Intake Protein

Dietary

Protein

SMALL

INTESTINE

Undegraded Intake Protein

aka Bypass or Escape


Slide23 l.jpg

Metabolizable Protein

Degradable Intake Protein

Dietary

Protein

SMALL

INTESTINE

Undegraded Intake Protein

aka Bypass or Escape


Slide24 l.jpg

Degradable Intake Protein

Dietary

Protein

SMALL

INTESTINE


Slide25 l.jpg

Degradable Intake Protein

Dietary

Protein

SMALL

INTESTINE


Slide26 l.jpg

Degradable Intake Protein

Dietary

Protein

SMALL

INTESTINE


Slide27 l.jpg

Dietary

Protein

SMALL

INTESTINE



Feed costs l.jpg
Feed Costs

  • Directly related to calving date

  • Survey of cow calf producers

    • Western and North Central Nebraska

    • 80% March-calving herd

    • Requires feeding hay

      • 2427 kg per cow

        (Clark et al., 2004)


Reduce harvested forage l.jpg
Reduce Harvested Forage

  • Key Concepts

    • Cow nutrient requirements

    • Forage nutrient supply


Reduce harvested forage31 l.jpg
Reduce Harvested Forage

  • Key Concepts

    • Cow nutrient requirements

    • Forage nutrient supply


Metabolizable protein requirement of a 1200lb march calving cow 20 lb milk l.jpg
Metabolizable Protein Requirement of a 1200lb March-Calving Cow, 20 lb milk

Peak Lactation

Fetal Growth

Weaning

National Research Council, Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, 1996


Biological priority for nutrients33 l.jpg
Biological Priority for Nutrients

Priority Function

1 Maintenance

2 Growth

3 Milk Production

4 Reproduction


Potential metabolizable protein from native upland forage in nebraska sandhills l.jpg
Potential metabolizable protein from native upland forage in Nebraska Sandhills

Cow weighing 1200 lbs with 20 lbs peak milk, Adapted from Lardy et al., 2004


Metabolizable protein requirement of a march calving cow and forage supply l.jpg
Metabolizable Protein Requirement of a Nebraska SandhillsMarch-Calving Cow and Forage Supply

March Calving Cow weighing 1200 lbs with 20 lb peak milk production


Metabolizable protein requirement of a june calving cow and forage supply l.jpg
Metabolizable Protein Requirement of a Nebraska SandhillsJune-Calving Cow and Forage Supply

June Calving Cow weighing 1200 lbs with 20 lb peak milk production


Hypothesis l.jpg
Hypothesis Nebraska Sandhills

  • June-Calving

    • Annual operating costs decreased

      • Extend grazing

      • Limited Harvested Forage

      • Match requirements with supply


Objectives l.jpg
Objectives Nebraska Sandhills

  • Compare productivity

    • Traditional: March-calving

    • Extended Grazing: June-calving

  • Develop net returns budgets


Study site l.jpg
Study Site Nebraska Sandhills


Slide40 l.jpg

* Nebraska Sandhills


Slide41 l.jpg

* Nebraska Sandhills


Materials and methods l.jpg
Materials and Methods Nebraska Sandhills

  • 195 cows

    • 75 March-calving: Traditional

    • 120 June-calving: Extended Grazing

      • First two years not included

  • 4 Years of data

    • 4 production cycles


Materials and methods43 l.jpg
Materials and Methods Nebraska Sandhills

  • 195 cows

    • 75 March-calving: Traditional

    • 120 June-calving: Extended Grazing

      • 60 breeding season on meadow

      • 60 breeding season on upland range

  • 4 Years of data

    • 4 production cycles


Herd management l.jpg
Herd Management Nebraska Sandhills

  • Traditional system

    • Fed hay mid-January through April

  • Extended Grazing system

    • Fed supplement

    • Fed hay post-calving and winter storms


Weaning l.jpg
Weaning Nebraska Sandhills

  • Calves weaned at 210 days of age

    • Traditional: March-born

      • October

    • Extended Grazing: June-born

      • January

  • Pregnancy status determined

  • Weaning rates


Post weaning management l.jpg
Post-weaning management Nebraska Sandhills

  • Traditional: March-born

    • Grazed sub-irrigated meadow for 21 days

  • Extended Grazing: June-born

    • Fed hay and supplement for 21 days


Economic analysis l.jpg
Economic analysis Nebraska Sandhills

  • Budgets include actual costs of:

    • Harvesting hay

    • Purchased feed

    • Grazing

      • Fence and water maintenance

      • Monitoring livestock

    • Labor

    • Operating interest and overhead

    • Heifer replacement

    • Veterinary and medicine


Economic analysis cont l.jpg
Economic analysis (cont.) Nebraska Sandhills

  • Budgets do not include costs of:

    • Land

    • Property taxes

    • Insurance

    • Buildings

    • Management


Statistical analysis l.jpg
Statistical Analysis Nebraska Sandhills

  • Experimental design

    • Completely randomized

  • Experimental unit

    • Calving system

      • Replication year


Statistical analysis cont l.jpg
Statistical Analysis (cont.) Nebraska Sandhills

  • Proc GLM SAS

  • Single degree of freedom orthogonal contrasts:

    • Traditional vs. Extended Grazing

      • All measured responses

    • Range vs. Meadow within Extended system

      • Pregnancy rate

      • Weaning rate


Results and discussion l.jpg

Results and Discussion Nebraska Sandhills


Pregnancy and weaning rates of cows in traditional and extended grazing systems l.jpg
Pregnancy and weaning rates of cows in Traditional and Extended Grazing systems

aMeans were similar (P>0.10) for Traditional vs. Extended Grazing.

bMeans were similar (P>0.10) for Range vs. Meadow within Extended

Grazing system.


Pregnancy and weaning rates of cows in traditional and extended grazing systems53 l.jpg
Pregnancy and weaning rates of cows in Traditional and Extended Grazing systems

aMeans were similar (P>0.10) for Traditional vs. Extended Grazing.

bMeans were similar (P>0.10) for Range vs. Meadow within Extended

Grazing system.


Weaning weight of calves in traditional and extended grazing systems l.jpg
Weaning weight of calves in Traditional and Extended Grazing systems

abMeans differ (P<0.05) for Traditional vs. Extended Grazing.


Gross value of calves in traditional and extended grazing systems l.jpg
Gross value of calves in Traditional and Extended Grazing systems

abMeans differ (P<0.05) for Traditional vs. Extended Grazing.


Seasonal price index of 227 271 kg steer calves 1993 2003 l.jpg
Seasonal price index of 227-271 kg steer calves 1993-2003 systems

Source: USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service, western Nebraska-eastern

Wyoming market 1993-1997, Nebraska auction markets 1998-2003.


Seasonal price index of 227 271 kg steer calves 1993 200357 l.jpg
Seasonal price index of 227-271 kg steer calves 1993-2003 systems

Source: USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service, western Nebraska-eastern

Wyoming market 1993-1997, Nebraska auction markets 1998-2003.


Seasonal price index of 227 271 kg steer calves 1993 200358 l.jpg
Seasonal price index of 227-271 kg steer calves 1993-2003 systems

Source: USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service, western Nebraska-eastern

Wyoming market 1993-1997, Nebraska auction markets 1998-2003.


Steer calf price 1998 2003 l.jpg
Steer calf price 1998-2003 systems

Source: USDA, Nebraska auction markets 1998-2003.


Sale price of calves in traditional and extended grazing systems l.jpg
Sale price of calves in Traditional and Extended Grazing systems

abMeans differ (P<0.05) for Traditional vs. Extended Grazing.


Sale price of calves in traditional and extended grazing systems61 l.jpg
Sale price of calves in Traditional and Extended Grazing systems

abMeans differ (P<0.05) for Traditional vs. Extended Grazing.











Summary of traditional and extended grazing systems l.jpg
Summary of Traditional and Extended calves over 4 yearsGrazing systems



Conclusions l.jpg
Conclusions systems

  • Traditional vs. Extended Grazing system

    • Similar pregnancy rate

    • Similar weaning rate


Conclusions74 l.jpg
Conclusions systems

  • Traditional vs. Extended Grazing system

    • Weaned calf

    • Approximately equivalent value

      • Seasonal price

      • Price slide


Conclusions75 l.jpg
Conclusions systems

  • Traditional vs. Extended Grazing system

    • Extended Grazing

      • Lower feed costs

      • Greater net returns


Implications l.jpg
Implications systems

  • Changing calving date

    • Effective means of increasing net returns

  • Match

    • Cow nutrient requirements

    • Forage nutrient supply

      • Not March vs. June


Implications77 l.jpg
Implications systems

  • Date of calving varies

    • Geographic location

    • Forage resources


Metabolizable protein requirement of a 1200lb march calving cow 20 lb milk78 l.jpg
Metabolizable Protein Requirement of a 1200lb systemsMarch-Calving Cow, 20 lb milk

Peak Lactation

Fetal Growth

Weaning

National Research Council, Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, 1996


Metabolizable protein requirement of a 1200lb march calving cow 20 lb milk79 l.jpg
Metabolizable Protein Requirement of a 1200lb systemsMarch-Calving Cow, 20 lb milk

Peak Lactation

Fetal Growth

Weaning

National Research Council, Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, 1996


Metabolizable protein requirement of a march calving cow and forage supply80 l.jpg
Metabolizable Protein Requirement of a systemsMarch-Calving Cow and Forage Supply

March Calving Cow weighing 1200 lbs with 20 lb peak milk production


Weaning dates l.jpg
Weaning Dates systems

  • 8 weaning dates:

    • August 18, 1999 to November 24, 1999

    • August 16, 2000 to November 22, 2000

(140 to 240 days after calving)



Slide83 l.jpg

Weaning and Supplement Treatments for March Calving Cows systems

  • August weaning

    • 1. No protein supplement during winter grazing

    • 2. Protein supplement during winter grazing

  • November weaning

    • 1. No protein supplement during winter grazing

    • 2. Protein supplement during winter grazing


Effect of weaning date on cow body condition score l.jpg
Effect of weaning date on systemscow body condition score


Effect of weaning date on pregnancy rate l.jpg
Effect of weaning date on systemspregnancy rate

P = 0.56


Effect of weaning date on weaning weight l.jpg
Effect of weaning date on systemsweaning weight

P = <0.001


Effect of weaning date on carcass weight l.jpg
Effect of weaning date on systemscarcass weight

P = 0.56


Effect of supplement on cow body condition score l.jpg
Effect of supplement on systemscow body condition score


Effect of supplement on pregnancy rate l.jpg
Effect of supplement on systemspregnancy rate

P = 0.27


Effect of supplement on weaning weight l.jpg
Effect of supplement on systemsweaning weight

P = <0.001


Effect of supplement on carcass weight l.jpg
Effect of supplement on systemscarcass weight

P = 0.04


Effect of supplement on cow body condition score92 l.jpg
Effect of supplement on systemscow body condition score


Slide93 l.jpg

Follow up study systems

Protein supplement during winter grazing

1. Graze meadow pre breeding

2. Feed hay pre breeding

No Protein supplement during winter grazing

1. Graze meadow pre breeding

2. Feed hay pre breeding


Slide94 l.jpg

No Protein Supplement systems

Winter

Protein Supplement


Slide95 l.jpg

Meadow systems

Spring

Hay


Effect of supplement on cow body condition score96 l.jpg
Effect of supplement on systemscow body condition score

***

**

***


Effect of supplement on pregnancy rate97 l.jpg
Effect of supplement on systemspregnancy rate

P = 0.46


Effect of supplement on percentage of live calves at weaning l.jpg
Effect of supplement on systemspercentage of live calves at weaning

P = 0.02


Effect of supplement on calf weight l.jpg
Effect of supplement on systemscalf weight

P = 0.02

P = 0.29


Effect of supplement on carcass weight100 l.jpg
Effect of supplement on systemscarcass weight

P = 0.23


Effect of meadow grazing on cow body condition score l.jpg
Effect of meadow grazing on systemscow body condition score

***


Effect of meadow grazing on pregnancy rate l.jpg
Effect of meadow grazing on systemspregnancy rate

P = 0.88


Effect of meadow grazing on percentage of live calves at weaning l.jpg
Effect of meadow grazing on systemspercentage of live calves at weaning

P = 0.15


Effect of meadow grazing on calf weight l.jpg
Effect of meadow grazing on systemscalf weight

P = 0.01

P = 0.20


Effect of meadow grazing on carcass weight l.jpg
Effect of meadow grazing on systemscarcass weight

P = 0.67


Slide106 l.jpg

  • How much supplemental protein? systems

  • Cows grazing native winter range, Nebraska Sandhills:

    • 0.4 lb CP mid-late gestation (Dec-Feb)

    • 0.6 lb CP 30 days pre-calving

    • 1.0 lb CP 30-45 days post calving


Slide107 l.jpg

  • How much supplemental protein? systems

  • Cows grazing native winter range, Nebraska Sandhills:

    • 0.4 lb CP mid-late gestation (Dec-Feb)

      • 1.5 lb DDG (as fed)

    • 0.6 lb CP 30 days pre-calving

      • 2.2 lb DDG (as fed)

    • 1.0 lb CP 30-45 days post calving

      • 3.0 lb DDG (as fed)


Slide108 l.jpg

  • How much supplemental protein? systems

  • Cows grazing native winter range, Nebraska Sandhills:

    • 0.4 lb CP mid-late gestation (Dec-Feb)

      • 2.0 lb of CP in total diet

    • 0.6 lb CP 30 days pre-calving

      • 2.2 lbs of CP in total diet

    • 1.0 lb CP 30-45 days post calving

      • 2.6 lbs of CP in total diet


Slide109 l.jpg

= $/lb of CP systems

= $.33/lb of CP

Price Shop

Calculate the cost per unit of the nutrient(s) you need.

Evaluate other factors.

Purchase in most economical way.

EXAMPLE:

$/Ton of Feed

# of CP/Ton

$200/ton of DDG

600# of CP/Ton DDG


Slide110 l.jpg

Cost of Supplements systems

$/Ton % CP Cost of CP

Cottonseed Pellets 300 32 0.47

20% Cube (AN) 265 20 0.66

32% Liquid (16% NPN) 285 21 0.68

12% Tub 600 12 2.50

32% Cube 320 32 0.50

19% Alf. Hay (Lg Rd. ) 110 19 0.33

17% Alf. Hay 85 17 0.25


Slide111 l.jpg


Slide112 l.jpg

Body Condition Score systems

  • A measure of energy reserves

  • Influences animal

    • Reproduction/lactation

    • Feed efficiency/gain

    • Health

    • Maintenance requirements

  • Scale 1 – 9 (emaciated to obese)


Slide113 l.jpg

BCS 2 systems

Ribs and bone structure easily visible, but no signs of physical weakness.


Slide114 l.jpg

BCS 3 systems

Very thin. No visible fat is on the ribs or brisket. Individual muscles in the hindquarters are easily visible and spinous processes are very apparent.


Slide115 l.jpg

BCS 5 systems

There is less than 0.2 inches of fat over the ribeye. Last one

or two ribs may be apparent. No fat is present in the brisket.


Slide116 l.jpg

BCS 6 systems

Appearance is smooth throughout. Some fat deposition is apparent in the brisket. Individual ribs are not visible.


Slide117 l.jpg

BCS 7 systems

Brisket is full. Tail head and pin bones have protruding deposits of fat on them. Back appears square due to fat.


ad