Chapter 5– Colonial Life. Section Notes. Video. Political Life in the Colonies The Colonial Economy America’s Emerging Culture The French and Indian War. Colonial Life. Maps. Thirteen Colonies, 1750 Triangular Trade The French and Indian War in New York
Political Life in the Colonies
The Colonial Economy
America’s Emerging Culture
The French and Indian War
Thirteen Colonies, 1750
The French and Indian War in New York
European Claims in North America
South Carolina Rice Plantation, 1730–1750
Rising Tensions between England and America, 1651–1689
Key Political Thinkers of the European Enlightenment
Visual Summary: Colonial Life
African Population in the Colonies, 1700
Political Cartoon: Join, or Die
The Old Plantation
The English felt taxing was fair because profit was the major incentive for colonizing America.
Mercantilism: a nation’s power was directly related to its wealth
Balance of Trade (exporting more that you import): a goal of mercantilism; the colonists could supply raw materials to England and could buy English goodsMercantilism Practice of creating and maintaining wealth by carefully controlling trade
England only wanted certain American products, such as fur and timber.
Colonists produced other products like wheat and fish that the English did not want.
Colonists often could get higher prices for their goods from the French, Spanish, or Dutch.Mercantilism
Their industries began to compete with those in England.
When Massachusetts refused to enforce Navigation Acts, the king made it a royal colony.The Glorious Revolution and the English Bill of Rights
During the English Civil War, colonists took small steps toward self-government.
In 1643 several colonies joined forces in the United Colonies of New England.
Though Parliament had more power since Glorious Revolution, it dealt mainly with mainland England.
The monarchs and their officials made most colonial policy.
When war with Spain broke out, colonial governments gained some independence.
Salutary neglect: referred to the fact that many English officials made colonial policies, but they did not rule the colonies very strictly.
Colonial Governments in 1700s
Local governments more influential in colonists’ lives
Colonial assemblies were bicameral like Parliament.
Governor’s council was the upper house.
Elected Assembly was lower house like Parliament.
Each colony had a governor.Government in the Colonies
Farming in New England
Soil was thin and rocky; winters were long, growing season short.
Subsistence farming, growing just enough food for their own family. Some raised extra corn or apples or cattle to trade with their neighbors. Rarely enough to produce an export crop
Farming in the South
Better land and milder climate. Grew enough wheat to sell grain and flour to other colonies and to send abroad
Raised cattle and hogs for export
Most productive farmers
German colonists also known as Pennsylvania Dutch. Used fertilizer and crop rotation. Women worked in the fields with the men.Northern Colonial Economies
When the number of fur-bearing animals declined, the colonists turned to timber (planks, shingles, and siding for ships and houses) and fish.
Because of Navigation Acts, many coastal towns were centers for shipbuilding. It was the largest single group in the workforce.
Some of the fish was exported to Europe and the West Indies. In early 1700s whaling industry began in New England. Whale products: lamp oil and materials used in perfumes, candles, and women’s corsetsNorthern Colonial Economies
English goods were expensive, so colonists made things at home. Small industries developed:
tobacco, the most valuable export
indigo (used to make blue dye) and rice
naval stores were also produced: rope, tar, and turpentine which were used to maintain wooden ships. These products were in great demand in England and produced a great profit.
Plantation system developed in Virginia and Maryland as the tobacco crop increased in importance.
Planters were wealthy and influential, dominating southern society and politics.
Plantations needed workers: a few huge plantations had hundreds of workers, either indentured servants or slaves.
Most farms were smaller and had less than 30 workers.
Most worked in the fields, though on larger plantations, men and women performed other tasks, such as shoemaking, weaving, and carpentry.South Colonial Economies
Biggest crops in South Carolina
Low coastal areas were ideal for growing rice.
Slaves were used; many knew how to grow rice and many had more resistance to malaria.
Indigo first successful crop grown by Eliza Lucas in South Carolina. She was only 18 years old.South Colonial Economies
At first many African workers were treated as indentured servants, but the terms of indenture grew longer until they lasted a lifetime.
White indentured servants were freed while black servants were not. In some colonies, black servants lost other rights.
The English settlers considered themselves superior to the Africans.
Historians disagree about why slavery continued:
For planters, holding slaves cost less than indentured servants.
Slaves’ children supplied the next generation of workers.
The number of people wanting to serve as indentured servants dropped.
Many slaves used physical resistance, sabotage, or ran away.
Stono Rebellion: In 1739, 100 enslaved Africans in South Carolina took weapons from a firearms shop and killed several people.
Some skilled artisans bought their freedom by hiring out their labor.The Impact of Slavery
Enlightenment: European movement that emphasized a search for knowledge. Also called the Age of Reason
Thinkers in Europe admired the new approach to science. They thought that logic and reason could also be used to improve society, law, and government.
English philosopher John Locke said it was the duty of government to protect the citizens’ natural rights: life, liberty, and property.
French Baron de Montesquieu suggested that the powers of government be divided.
French writer Voltaire criticized intolerance and prejudice.
Other thinkers wanted to use new ideas to reform education, which in turn would improve society, criminal justice, and conditions for the poor.The Enlightenment and the American Colonies
The Enlightenment in America
John Locke’s writings were widely read in America. They influenced Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin, among others.
Great Awakening was a religious revival movement in the colonies.
Jonathan Edwards, Puritan minister, was one of the movement leaders, preached about the agonies that sinners would suffer if they did not repent.
He was influenced by John Locke and Sir Isaac Newton.
George Whitefield, British Methodist minister, preached throughout the colonies. His strong voice moved people to cry and confess their sins.
Led to increase in church membership in the 1700sNew Protestant religions grew in America: Congregational Church, Methodist, Baptist, and Presbyterian
Was one of first links uniting the colonies
Led to creation of several collegesThe Great Awakening
Some cities had cobblestone streets lit by oil lamps. Ships from foreign ports were in the harbors. People enjoyed reading mail from relatives and English newspapers and magazines.
Many cities had libraries, bookshops, and impressive public buildings.
Places where colonists could see plays and hear concerts
Markets to shop for produce or European luxury goods
Schools that taught music, dancing, drawing, and painting in addition to traditional classes
City life for women: no hard farm work, but still had household tasks to perform Prosperous women had more time for reading and writing.
Men and women spent many hours writing letters to friends and family.Life in Colonial America
Quilting bees and barn raisings were examples of work in sociable ways.
Northern colonists went ice-skating and sledding in winter.
Horse racing and hunting
Visiting neighbors was favorite pastime
Social events: dancing, listening to music
Printers printed and distributed newspapers, books, advertisements, and political announcements.Life in Colonial Economies
Spain wanted to guard the sea routes for Spanish treasure ships returning from Mexico.
Since the 1500s, there were Spanish missions along the Atlantic coast. By the 1600s, they had nearly 40 missions in Florida and Georgia.
As English colonies expanded southward, Spanish missions and settlements were threatened.
Carolina slave traders began to attack the missions.
By 1700, the Spanish presence was only in the areas of San Augustine and PensacolaSpain and England Clash
French and Indian War (1754–1763) became part of a larger war between France and Britain, the Seven Years’ War. War broke out in the colonies first, then spread to the European continent.
The first years of the war went badly for the British. The French won battle after battle.
British officers in America
Forced colonists into the army
Sent soldiersto stay in colonists’ houses
When colonists resisted these actions, more British soldiers were sent from England to fight in the war.
In 1758, the British began winning the war.
When the British took Quebec in 1759, it was the turning point in the war.
France surrendered in 1760.The French and Indian War
1763—Treaty of Paris ended the Seven Years’ War in Europe and the French and Indian War in North America.
Britain gained all French land east of the Mississippi River, including much of what is now Canada.
Spain had allied with France. It gave up control of Florida to Britain. France gave Spain the Louisiana Territory.
France kept two islands near Canada and regained some Caribbean islands.The French and Indian War
Reserved the land west of the Appalachian Mountains for Native Americans
Gave British officials control of westward migration
Slowed movement out of cities that were centers of trade and prosperityEffects of the War