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Chapter 4. Tissue: The Living Fabric G.R. Pitts, Ph.D, J.R. Schiller, Ph.D. & James F. Thompson, Ph.D. General. Tissues - groups of cells with similar basic structures which cooperate to perform a related function Four basic types of tissues

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chapter 4

Chapter 4

Tissue: The Living Fabric

G.R. Pitts, Ph.D,J.R. Schiller, Ph.D. &James F. Thompson, Ph.D.

  • Tissues - groups of cells with similar basic structures which cooperate to perform a related function
  • Four basic types of tissues
    • Epithelial – linings for protection, coordination, synthesis, absorption, elimination
    • Connective – support
    • Muscle – for movement
      • muscle tissue is a highly specialized connective tissue
    • Nervous – for control and coordination
      • nervous tissue is a highly specialized epithelial tissue
epithelial tissue characteristics
Epithelial Tissue Characteristics
  • Cellularity - densely packed
  • Polarity
      • apical surface
      • basal surface (or basolateral)
  • Specialized contacts - tight junctions and desmosomes
  • Supported by connective tissue
      • basal lamina (epithelial “glue”)
      • reticular lamina (connective tissue “glue”)
      • basement membrane - reticular and basal laminae together
  • Innervated but avascular (no direct blood supply)
  • Regeneration – high capacity for regeneration
classifying epithelial tissues
Classifying Epithelial Tissues



  • By number of cell layers

Pseudostratified epithelium (from the respiratory tree) appears stratified, but actually is a single layer of cells of varying heights; each cell touches the basement membrane

classifying epithelial tissues1
Classifying Epithelial Tissues





  • By cell shape
glandular epithelial tissues
Glandular Epithelial Tissues
  • functions in secretion – a gland may be one cell or a group of specialized cells
  • two major types
    • exocrine glands have ducts leading to body surfaces
      • various products are synthesized and stored for release
      • secretions are secreted into the duct system
      • e.g., sweat glands, salivary glands, etc.
    • endocrine glands are ductless
      • hormones are synthesized and stored for release
      • hormones are secreted into the tissue fluid and then diffuse into the blood stream
      • e.g., thyroid and parathyroid glands
exocrine gland classification
Exocrine Gland Classification
  • Unicellular glands
    • single cell glands
    • goblet cells
exocrine gland classification1
Exocrine Gland Classification
  • Multicellular glands
    • Structurally classified by duct configuration and by the shape of the secretory units
      • simple glands have a single duct
      • compound glands have branched ducts
    • Merocrine glands
      • Exocytosis
    • Holocrine glands
      • Cell rupture
connective tissue characteristics
Connective Tissue Characteristics
  • Two basic components
    • Cells – fewer, rarely touching, surrounded by a matrix
      • immature forms (-blasts) secrete the matrix and can still divide
      • once the matrix is secreted, the cells mature into -cytes which have decreased cell divisions and secrete less matrix material
      • chondro- cartilage, osteo- bone, fibro – connective, etc.
    • Extracellular Matrix
      • ground substance (gelatinous glycoproteins)
      • structural fibers (fibrous proteins, e.g., collagen, elastin, reticulin)
  • Common embryological origin (from mesoderm)
  • Innervated and Vascular (direct blood supply)
      • Cartilage is the one exception with no capillary beds
connective tissue matrix
Connective Tissue Matrix
  • Ground Substance
    • supports cells, binds them together
    • may be solid, fluid, or gel
    • interstitial fluid
    • Glycoproteins called proteoglycans - large polysaccharide molecules bound to a protein core (like a bottle brush)
      • Hyaluronic acid – gelatinous, separates cells, traps extracellular fluid; lubricates joints; gives shape to eyeballs; fills body spaces
      • Chondroitin sulfate – capable of being mineralized; cartilage, bones, skin, blood vessels
      • Dermatin sulfate – harder; skin, tendons, blood vessels, heart valves
      • Keratin sulfate - still harder; bone, cartilage, cornea of the eyes
connective tissue matrix1
Connective Tissue Matrix
  • Protein fibers are embedded in the ground substance
    • Used for structural support, adhesion, and to connect cells
  • Provide strength and support
    • Collagen fibers
      • highly polymerized, gigantic molecules
      • tough, moderate flexibility
      • protein collagen - parallel bundles of fibers
      • bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments
    • Elastic fibers (elastin)
      • branched; smaller, thinner fibers than collagen
      • Very flexible and elastic but also strong
      • can be stretched to 150% of its original length
      • require special stains to be seen
    • Reticular fibers
      • thin, less polymerized collagen fibers
      • require special stains to be seen
types of connective tissues
Types of Connective Tissues
  • Connective Tissue Proper
    • areolar (loose fibrous) connective tissue
    • adipose tissue
    • reticular connective tissue
    • dense (fibrous) regular connective tissue
    • dense (fibrous) irregular connective tissue
  • Cartilage
    • hyaline cartilage
    • elastic cartilage
    • fibrocartilage
  • Bone
  • Blood
connective tissue types
Connective Tissue Types

Classified by the characteristics of the matrix

Also see Table 4.1

Details covered in lab

connective tissue diseases
Connective Tissue Diseases
  • Many diseases
  • Most of them very rare
  • They may involve the joints but primarily affect other organs
  • Cause(s) of these diseases unknown
  • But in all of them, the immune system seems to be activated and causes damage to different organs in the body
systemic lupus erythematosus
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

  • Symptoms: skin rash, mild arthritis, and generalized weakness or tiredness
  • Rarer symptoms: hair loss, mouth ulcers, headaches and poor circulation in the fingers
  • Serious complications of kidney, heart, and brain inflammation
  • 9 times more likely in women
  • 4 times more likely in African-Americans
marfan syndrome
Marfan Syndrome
  • Genetic defect on chromosome 15 that encodes the fibrilin protein
nervous tissue
Nervous Tissue
  • Highly specialized epithelial cells
  • Convert stimuli into electro-chemical signals for transfer of information
  • Structure
    • cell body (soma) and extensions
    • dendrites (highly branched) – carry incoming signal
    • axon (long, usually single strand) – carry outgoing signal
muscle tissue characteristics
Muscle Tissue Characteristics
  • a high degree of cellularity
  • cells contain contractile proteins
  • well vascularized
  • a highly specialized type of connective tissue
classification of muscle tissues
Classification of Muscle Tissues
  • two types are Striated:
    • Skeletal muscle
      • attached to bones
      • multinucleate
      • voluntary
      • fibers are parallel and cylindrical
    • Cardiac muscle
      • most of the heart wall
      • single nucleus (usually)
      • involuntary
      • branched cylinders connected by intercalated discs
classification of muscle tissues1
Classification of Muscle Tissues
  • One type is non-striated
    • Smooth muscle
      • located in the walls of hollow organs:
        • blood vessels
        • digestive tract
        • airways
        • bladder
      • involuntary
      • single nucleus
      • spindle shaped
epithelial membranes
Epithelial Membranes

A particular Epithelium and its underlying Connective Tissue support



mucous membranes
Mucous Membranes
  • Line body structures which open directly to the exterior
  • Viscous mucus secretions lubricate surfaces and provide a defensive barrier that traps particles and microbes
serous membranes
Serous Membranes
  • Line closed body cavities and their organs
  • Watery serous fluid lubricates the cavity and its organs
    • pleura – lungs
    • pericardium - heart
    • peritoneum - abdominal organs
      • parietal
      • visceral
tissue injury repair
Tissue Injury & Repair
  • Inflammation
    • redness
    • swelling
    • heat
    • pain
    • loss of function
  • Organization restores blood supply
    • Blood clot replaced by granulation tissue
  • Regeneration and Fibrosis
    • Epithelium regenerates
    • Fibrous conn. tissue matures and contracts
tissue repair
Tissue Repair
  • During development some cells lose their ability to divide with specialization
  • Some cells maintain the ability to replace others
    • Stem cells
      • immature, undifferentiated cells
      • hide in protected areas in skin/GI tract to replace cells
    • Tissue repair
      • new cells come from parenchyma (functioning portion) or stroma (connective tissue)
      • if parenchyma cells proliferate then repair nearly complete; if not, then we get scar tissue formation
      • fibroblasts will produce collagen and other matrix materials during fibrosis – a less functional tissue
conditions affecting repair
Conditions Affecting Repair
  • Nutrition
    • adequate protein in the diet for repair
    • necessary vitamins and other nutrients
  • Blood circulation
    • transport oxygen, nutrients, antibodies and other defensive molecules and cells to the site
    • WBCs remove debris which would otherwise interfere with healing
  • Age
    • young people heal faster and have less obvious scars
    • young people have a better nutritional status, a better blood supply, and a higher metabolism
embryonic germ layers
Embryonic Germ Layers

We’ll see the embryonic tissues again in Chapter 28 next semester

end chapter 4
End Chapter 4

Exam 1 covers Chapters 1-4