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Authors: A.Dutta, J.C Chen, S. Das, M. Elaoud, D. Famolari, S. Madhani, A McAuley, M. Tauil Telcordia Technologies S. Baba, T.Maeda, N. Nakajima, Y. Ohba Toshiba America Research Inc. Henning Schulzrinne Columbia University Presenter: Ashutosh Dutta.

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Implementing a testbed for mobile multimedia

Authors: A.Dutta, J.C Chen, S. Das, M. Elaoud, D. Famolari,

S. Madhani, A McAuley, M. Tauil

Telcordia Technologies

S. Baba, T.Maeda, N. Nakajima, Y. Ohba

Toshiba America Research Inc.

Henning Schulzrinne

Columbia University

Presenter: Ashutosh Dutta

Implementing a Testbed for Mobile Multimedia


ITSUMO Project

Internet Technology Supporting Universal Mobile Operations

( Joint Research of Toshiba and Telcordia Technologies)


Outline
Outline

  • Motivation

  • Architecture Components

  • Protocol Galaxy

  • Prototype/Signal Flows

  • Demo (Internal & External)


Issue
Issue

  • The New York Times (Aug. 23, 1999, “Multimedia Transmissions Drive Net Toward Gridlock”)

  • Multimedia streaming is going to be a killer application for the Internet.

  • Multimedia traffic is RTP/UDP based, applications include

    • IP telephony

    • Broadcasting multimedia content

    • Multi-party conferences, collaborations

    • Multi-player games

  • We need a mobility management scheme for multi-media traffic in the wireless Internet


Motivation
Motivation

  • To realize Wireless Internet Telephony and Mobile multimedia in an internal and external Test-bed to help deployment

  • Components

    • Signaling

    • Configuration

    • Binding - Session Continuity

    • Security - BURP/AAA

    • QoS

    • Media Delivery - Wireless Multicast

    • IP-PSTN


Internet Multimedia Protocol Stack

Media Transport

MGCP

Quality of Service

media encaps

(H.261. MPEG)

Signaling

SDP

SAP

Application Daemon

H.323

SIP

RSVP

RTCP

RTSP

DNS

RTP

LDAP

TCP

UDP

CIP

MIPv6

MIP

ICMP

IGMP

MIP variant

Network

IPv4, IPv6, IP Multicast

Kernel

PPP

AAL3/4

AAL5

PPP

CDMA

802.11

V.34

Ethernet

Physical

SONET

ATM



Itsumo s principles
ITSUMO’s Principles

  • End-to-end wireless/wireline IP platform Reduce wireless infrastructure cost

  • Global roaming Enable seamless communication anywhere

  • Wireless “technology-independence” Common middleware for any wireless interface

  • Support of real-time and non-real time multimedia services using IP Simplify implementation & reduce cost (e.g.VoIP)

  • Smooth/seamless interworking with PSTN and today’s mobile telephony Enable communication with existing network


The itsumo all ip network architecture

Inter-Domain Control Agent

Domain Control Agent

Domain Control Agent

BS

The ITSUMO All-IP Network Architecture

Control messages (i.e..., signaling)

IDCA

Visited Network

Home Network

DCA

DCA

MS

ERC

ERC

BS

Regional IP network

Regional IP network

Internet

IP

BS

BS

Radio Access Network

(RAN)

Wireline IP backbone network

Radio Access Network

(RAN)

MS: Mobile Station

BS: Base Station

ERC: Edge Router & Controller


Wireless internet roaming

VR

HR

MAAAQ

AAAQ

SIP Server

SIP Server

Wireless Internet Roaming

SIP: Session Initiation Protocol

DCA: Domain Control Agent

ERC: Edge Router & Controller

MAAAQ: Mobility, AAA, Quality of Service

Visiting Network

Home Network

Visiting Registrar

Home Registrar

SLA/SA

RTP

Translator

Corresponding Host

SIP

SIP

IPch

DRCP

DRCP

ERC 1

ERC 3

Internet

207.3.232.10

BSC 1

BS

BSC 3

ERC 2

BS

BSC 2

A

128.59.11.6

207.3.232.10

BS

207.3.240.10

BS

D

B

128.59.10.6

BS

INVITE

C

  • SIP UA in mobiles and hosts.



Wireless internet telephony test bed protocols

Functionality

Protocols

Details/Remarks/usage

Signaling

SIP/MGCP

SIP was used for IP end-points.

MGCP was used with Call Agent

Configuration

DRCP - aka

Faster registration protocol for

Fast

wireless roaming users - a variant of

(wireless)DHCP

fast DHCP

Local

BURP

User registration protocol similar to

Authentication

(Basic User

PPP is for dialup environment for

Registration

roaming within a domain.

Protocol)

Inter-Domain

Diameter

SIP-AAA interaction before the

(AAA)

registration is successful

Inter AAA interaction during domain

handoff

Location

SIP Registration

Re-registration upon subnet change

Management

Dynamic DNS for

AAA is involved only after it changes

non SIP- sessions

a domain.

QoS

DSNP

Dynamically allocates QoS during the

subnet handoff

Multicast

PIM/DVMRP

Localized Multicast application

Application layer

(RTP/RTCP)

QoS experiments for Multicast

application

Intra-domain mobility with fast-

handoff

Binding

SIP based mobility

Supports audio/video/white board as

management for

part of mobility application.

real-time

(indoor/outdoor)

application, MIP

for TCP based

Wireless Internet Telephony Test-bed Protocols


ITSUMO Technology Suites (1/2)

  • DRCP (Dynamic Rapid Configuration Protocol) *1

    • Light weight (i.e., short message length, less number of exchanging messages) network-node configuration protocol suitable for the wireless environment

  • SIP Mobility *1

    • Mobility Management Framework that is realized at the message level of SIP (IETF signaling protocol for VoIP) and fits well with the VoIP and Multimedia application

  • QoS Architecture *1

    • Architecture based on Diffserv (Differentiated Service), that supports wireless user’s free roaming.

    • Realizing dynamic SLS negotiation between user and network by the original QoS signaling protocol (DSNP).

DSNP: Dynamic SLS Negotiation Protocol

SLS: Service Level Specification

*1: Refer to Appendixes for more information


ITSUMO Technology Suites (2/2)

  • Wireless Multicast

    • Localized Advertisement using RTCP feedback

    • Scope-based multicast

  • AAA Architecture *1

    • Based on Diameter (Network-network AAA protocol developing in IETF) framework.

    • Supporting wireless user’s handoff by the local authentication using temporal “session key”.

    • Increasing flexibility by designing original protocol, BURP, that is used between user and the network independent of Diameter.

  • IP-PSTN integration

    • SIP and MGCP Protocol Suite

    • Call-Agent

  • IP based Wireless Access Point

    • IP centric wireless access point to support a hot spot.

    • Realization of the soft-handoff in the radio access network consisting of the IP network.

AAA: Authentication, Authorization and Accounting

BURP: Basic User Registration Protocol

*1: Refer to Appendix for more information


Configuration drcp principles
Configuration - DRCP Principles

  • Shrink message size

  • Minimize messages in transactions

  • Minimize use of Broadcast

    • In wireless technologies, e.g., cdma2000, broadcast bandwidth is a scarce resource.

      One Possible Solution:

    • Server Advertisement

      • It gives deterministic use of broadcast.

      • Client can use link layer unicast.

      • Tradeoff with latency of configuration.


Drcp vs dhcp messages
DRCP vs DHCP Messages

  • DHCP - 236 bytes

  • DRCP - 14 bytes

  • 94 % improvement


Signaling binding sip mobility handoff
Signaling/Binding - SIP Mobility - Handoff

Corresponding Host at

Mobile Host at

SIP signaling

IP0

IP1

RTP

Mobile Host

Invite [email protected]

Contact [email protected]

-> IP2

SIP UA

SIP signaling

IP2

RTP

RAT/VIC


Sip mobility handoff

BS

BS

SIP Mobility - Handoff -

3. Send Data to New Address

2. re-INVITE

Correspondent Host (CH)

By sending SIP re-INVITE message from new location, CH starts sending its voice packets to the new location and Communication continues seamlessly


QGS: QoS Global Server

QLN: QoS Local Node

MS: Mobile Station

RAN: Radio Access Network

ITSUMO QoS Architecture

Domain 1

Global IP Network

Domain 2

AAA server

QGS

QGS

AAA server

DHCP server

DHCP server

2

QLN

QLN

QLN

QLN

QLN

QLN

RAN

RAN

RAN

1

RAN

RAN

RAN

MS


Itsumo aaa architecture
ITSUMO AAA Architecture

Domain2 (Foreign network)

Domain1 (Home network)

Pre-shared key

for [email protected]

DIAMETER Server

(AAA Foreign)

DIAMETER Server

(AAA Home)

Temporary key [email protected]

DIAMETER Client

DIAMETER Client

BURP Server

w/Firewall

BURP Server

w/Firewall

Correspondent Host

RAN in

Home Net

RAN1

RAN2

MobileStation

BURP Client

[email protected]


Security

  • Providing IP-based security mechanism for access networks especially for WLAN

  • Methods

    • User authentication (with roaming support)

      • UNAP (User-Network AAA Protocol)

        • Runs between user device and Authentication Agent as a front-end AAA protocol such as Diameter/RADIUS

        • Supports periodical re-authentication for logoff detection and connection hijacking protection

          • Re-authentication is performed locally between user device and AA

        • Supports distribution of site-specific security information such as IKE credentials (see below)

    • Per-packet message encryption and integrity check (with roaming support)

      • IPsec tunnel between client device and IPsec gateway

        • Less overhead than PPP-based VPN solution

        • No pre-configration is needed for IPsec (IKE) parameters in the client device


  • Session establishment

    IKE-credential

    IKE-credential

    UNAP Hello[username=''[email protected]'']

    UNAP Hello_ACK[challenge,username]

    Diameter Request

    [challenge, response, username]

    UNAP Open[challenge, response,username]

    If check is OK,

    create a session-key

    and encrypt it

    using the password

    UNAP Open_ACK

    [ E[session-key], IKE-credential ]

    Diameter Answer

    [username, session-key, E[session-key]]

    session key

    session key

    Session Establishment

    Host

    UNAPserver with IPsec gateway

    AAA server

    password

    password

    for user xxx

    Access Control Status

    Internet/Intranet


    Next step ipsec tunnel creation

    IKE-credential

    IKE-credential

    IPsec tunne1

    Next Step: IPsec Tunnel Creation

    Host

    UNAP server with IPsec gateway

    AAA server

    IKE message exchange

    :

    :

    Access Control Status

    Internet/Intranet


    A Global Streaming Network

    IAL

    Inter ACN

    Links

    Station

    Internet

    in-the

    Sky

    Global

    Broadband LEOs

    Traditional

    Radio/TV

    IP I/F

    Up link

    Up link

    IP I/F

    Down Link

    with

    spot-beam

    Terrestrial

    INTERNET

    Individual

    Broadcaster

    Wireless

    IP I/F

    Local

    Server A

    Local

    Server C

    Local

    Server B

    Local Ad

    Server

    Local Ad

    Server

    Local Subnet

    Local Subnet

    Local Subnet


    Localized multicast with multiple servers

    m1

    Local

    Server

    m2

    RTSP

    Local

    Program

    Ad server

    Localized Multicast with Multiple Servers

    IETF protocols

    SAP- Session Announcement Protocol

    SDP - Session Description Protocol

    RTP/RTCP - Real-Time Transport Protocol

    RTSP – RealTime Streaming Protocol

    Sources

    p1

    S1

    S2

    p2

    M-Proxy

    Backbone

    S1

    S0

    m1

    Local

    Server

    m2

    RTSP

    Local

    Program

    Ad server

    (a1,a2)

    (a3)

    BS1

    BS0

    BS2

    (P1,a1)

    P2,a3

    (P2,a2)

    P2,a2


    SIP

    UA

    Mini

    RGW

    Mini

    RGW

    Call Agent/RGW- IP- PSTN integration

    CA/SIP server

    CA/SIP server

    Solaris/NT

    Solaris/NT

    MCAP/SIP-BCPT

    SIP/MGCP

    Backbone Network

    SIP/MGCP

    Access

    Gateway

    Access

    Gateway

    SIP/MGCP

    SIP/MGCP

    FX board

    FX board

    Residential

    Gateway

    Residential

    Gateway

    DRCP

    server

    HA/DRCP

    server

    Non-IP Phone

    Non-IP Phone

    Base

    Station

    Non-IP Phone

    Base

    Station

    IP Phone


    SIP User to analog phone (SIP-MGCP)

    PC A

    Call

    Connection

    Agent/SIP server

    CGW

    PC B

    SIP Agent A

    INVITE

    Dials

    CGW

    Call Processing

    CRCX+RQNT

    ACK

    Resp. 180

    Ringing

    Ringing

    Tone

    Offhook

    Notify

    ACK

    RQNT

    ACK

    Resp. 200 OK

    ACK

    Call Established

    Notify

    On hook

    ACK

    No suspension

    message

    RQNT

    ACK

    BYE

    Hangup detected

    DLCX+RQNT

    Performance Data

    Call Terminates


    ITSUMO Testbed Architecture

    Domain 1

    Domain 2

    Backbone

    Border Router

    Border Router

    3600

    3600

    SIP

    Server/Call Agent

    SIP

    Server/Call Agent

    Multicast

    Proxy

    R2

    R3

    R1

    AAA

    Server

    SIP

    Server

    AAA

    Server

    DRCP

    Server

    DRCP

    Server

    BURP

    DRCP

    Server

    BURP

    BURP

    ERC4

    ERC3

    ERC1

    ERC2

    External

    Omni

    Antenna

    HA/DRCP

    Server

    QOS

    QOS

    QOS

    QOS

    VLAN Switch

    VLAN Switch

    VLAN Switch

    VLAN Switch

    External Demo

    Micro

    Macro

    Domain


    BEA Server

    207.3.232.82

    207.3.232.112

    207.3.232.64/26

    backbone

    DCA1

    toshi16

    10.1.5.3

    10.2.1.1

    10.2.1.121

    netmeeting

    10.1.5.152

    10.2.1.122

    Indoor

    Outdoor

    Outdoor

    AP

    Outdoor

    AP

    Outdoor

    AP

    10.2.2.152

    10.2.2.1

    10.2.1.201

    onboard

    router

    network name

    = “ITSUMO outdoor”

    EC

    GPS client

    10.2.2.151

    GPS Receiver

    netmeeting

    onboard

    network


    Unified mobility solution
    Unified Mobility Solution

    Micro

    Mobility

    Macro

    Mobility

    Domain

    Mobility

    MS

    Detect a change in the point of attachment (from Layer-2 perspective)

    Detect a change in the point of attachment (from Layer-3 perspective)

    Detect a change in the point of attachment (from Layer-3 perspective)

    IP Level Configuration

    IP Level Configuration

    DRCP

    BURP

    Do Local AAA

    Do Global AAA

    DSNP

    SLS negotiation

    SIP

    Mobility

    Re-invite CH and send Register Msg

    Re-invite CH and send Register Msg


    tari.toshiba.com

    Research.telcordia.com

    Public

    SIP

    Server

    Broker

    AAA

    Diameter

    Client

    visited AAA

    Diameter

    Server

    Home AAA

    Diameter

    Server

    Home SIP

    Server

    Home SIP

    Server

    Diameter

    Client

    Diameter

    Client

    Intra-domain subnet handoff

    D

    R

    C

    P

    Server

    Diameter Client

    BURP

    Server

    D

    R

    C

    P

    Server

    Diameter Client

    BURP Server

    D

    R

    C

    P

    Server

    Diameter Client

    BURP

    Server

    2

    1

    3

    4

    3

    4

    2

    1

    2

    Inter-domain subnet handoff

    1

    DRCP

    Client

    BURP

    Client

    DRCP

    Client

    DRCP

    Client

    SIP

    UA

    BURP

    Client

    BURP

    Client

    SIP

    UA

    SIP

    UA

    MH moves

    MH

    MH

    MH



    ITSUMO Testbed (Outdoor Portion)

    • Performance evaluation under the environment of Outdoor and/or fast moving.

    • 802.11b (WaveLAN)

    • Area in a few thousand feet away from the building is covered by several Base Stations (BSs).

    • Each BS forms a sub-area. The type of inter-sub-area handoff is assigned freely.

    • It is available to experiment with a car moving at the speed less than around 45MPH.

    • Service experiment:

      • IP based Terminal Authentication and/or Handoff

      • IP based Phone, Video and File share services.

    Beam 1

    Beam 3

    Beam 2

    Beam 4

    Intra-

    Subnet

    (Micro)

    Inter-

    Domain

    Inter-

    Subnet (Macro)

    IP based Real-time handoff




    Thank You !

    • Q and A



    ITSUMO Outdoor Experiment

    Base Station

    -Emulating cdma2000 by using WaveLAN

    -Mobility test by using the eight radio cells


    ITSUMO Outdoor Experiment

    Driving route

    300 m


    Protocol integration demonstration
    Protocol Integration Demonstration

    • DRCP (terminal config.)

    • SIP Mobility

      • Handoff

      • Location Update

    • AAA for mobile users

      • BURP

    • QoS for mobile

      • DSNP

    • Unified Mobility Management


    1 unified mobility management
    1. Unified Mobility Management

    ITSUMO approach

    • Unified Mobility

      • Each function (i.e. terminal configuration, user registration and location update) must be adapted to the state of handoff, i.e., Micro-, Macro- and Domain Handoff.

    • Security based on a single framework

      • Single AAA framework supports both user registration and signaling message authentication (e.g., SIP message authentication using AAA).

    • QoS with Mobile

      • Use Diffserv as a foundation to support a mobile user.


    SIP-AAA Interaction

    Home

    AAA Server

    SIP server/Diameter Client

    MH

    Subnet changes

    SIP Register

    Time

    SIP Server/Challenge (401)

    SIP

    Registration

    SIP Register with/Challenge-Response

    Diameter Request

    Diameter Reply

    SIP Register OK


    Localized Multicast Application with mobility

    Same subnet

    m1

    R

    Multicast

    Agent

    Stream

    Server

    R2

    R1

    Multicast

    proxy

    Mapping:

    M1 ---> m1 (Cell 1)

    M1 ----> n1 (Cell 2)

    M1

    Ia

    Ib

    Ic

    Id

    Msx

    CGMP/IGMP

    snooping

    Sharing multicast

    address

    M1

    Case1

    m1 = n1

    Case 2

    m1=! n1

    Multicast Switch

    Mx

    Mx

    M1

    S5

    S1

    S2

    S3

    S4

    Local

    content

    Local

    content

    Lmx

    lm1

    m1

    Lmx

    lm1

    n1

    m1

    ia

    ic

    id

    ib

    ib


    Itsumo value proposition
    ITSUMO Value Proposition

    • ITSUMO offers end users seamless IP connectivity across various wireless/wireline networks.

    • ITSUMO enables end users to select the best access network in terms of speed, cost and services.

    • ITSUMO enables network operators to manage a single network for various services and to reduce the cost for maintenance and modifications.


    What is all ip wireless and what for research background
    What is All IP Wireless and What for?(Research Background)

    Data becomes dominant even in “wireless” world

    Data is most efficiently carried by “IP(Internet Protocol)”

    However, present IP technology cannot carry realtime voice/video in wireless world

    This causes high infrastructure cost and difficulty in sharing wireline Internet application in wireless world

    We will first solve this problem by developing

    - Wireless VoIP, IP signaling, Security, Unified addressing

    - Evolution scenario from current wireless to IP wireless


    Drcp message flow
    DRCP Message Flow

    Server

    Client

    ADVERTISEMENT

    REQUEST

    Client

    Server

    REQUEST/RELEASE

    REPLY

    ACK

    Time axis

    a) Client moves to new Subnet

    b) Extending the lease

    • Send DISCOVER when new server ADVERTISEMENT

    • OFFER tells if need new IP address, re-register, ...


    On going work and future direction
    On going work and Future Direction

    • Multiple Radio Support

      • Introducing Bluetooth

      • Shadow MAC addressing

    • Network management

      • Monitoring Network in real time

      • Automatic entity configuration ( i.e. Plug and Play)

    • IPv6

      • Evolution of ITSUMO solution to IPv6

    • VoIP

      • SIP-MGCP-H.323 inter-work with Call Agent

      • Supporting “Services”, e.g. conference calls, voice mail,

    • Outdoor Extension / Service Application

      • Unified Mobility at the Renovated Outdoor Extension

      • IP paging (DMHA: Dormant Mode Host Alerting)

      • Location base service

      • IP Multicast


    Sip mobility

    BS

    BS

    SIP Mobility

    Correspondent Host (CH)

    1. Move

    Mobile Host (MH)

    Established voice communication with SIP


    Itsumo major achievement
    ITSUMO Major Achievement

    • Established basic wireless IP network architecture

      • IP signaling / IP based base station / Evolution scenario

    • Proposed original wireless IP protocol suites

      • 4 original protocols (DRCP,HMMP,DSNP,BURP) created

      • 21 contributions submitted to IETF/ MWIF/ 3GPP2

    • Created patents

      • 18 patents ongoing application (out of 38 patent ideas)

    • Developed testbed

      • Realistic demos for wireless IP network (micro/macro/domain handoff)

    • Exhibited at major trade shows

      • PCS 99, CTIA 2000, COMDEX Fall 2000


    Testbed network configuration

    MS

    Testbed Network Configuration

    207.3.232.64 Backbone

    ( The Internet )

    Home

    SIP Server

    (Registrar)

    Correspondent Host (CH)

    DCA2

    (AAAf)

    DCA1

    (AAAh)

    Click to edit Master title style

    ERC1 (DRCP,QLN,BURP,FW)

    10.1.1.x

    10.1.3.x

    10.1.4.x


    Basic idea of burp
    Basic idea of BURP

    • BURP uses EAP(Extensible Authentication Protocol) for flexibility of the authentication mean.

      • Complete authentication of MS with Home AAA (Diameter) Server by using Pre-shared Key for Inter-domain handoff (i.e., Global AAA).

      • Local authentication by using the Session Key which is temporally generated by the Home AAA server and shared between MS and a server in the foreign network for Intra-domain handoff (i.e., Local AAA).

      • Periodical authentication (challenge-response) of MS in order to detect its movement or power-off.


    Itsumo qos framework
    ITSUMO QoS Framework

    • Use diffserv as the foundation in the backbone

    • Major components

      • QGS (QoS Global Server)

        • Retain global information of the whole domain

        • Make QoS related decision and instruct QLNs what to do

      • QLN (QoS Local Node)

        • Retain local information of the resource available in the local domain

        • Ingress node of the diffserv domain

    • Architecture characteristics:

      • A central authority per domain with global information, and several local ingress nodes with local information

      • QoS signaling and transport are separated

        • Central server deals with the QoS signaling (DSNP)

        • Local nodes handle the actual transport traffic


    Sip mobility1

    BS

    BS

    SIP Mobility

    Correspondent Host (CH)

    1. Move

    Mobile Host (MH)

    Established voice communication with SIP


    Sip mobility handoff1

    BS

    BS

    SIP Mobility - Handoff -

    3. Send Data to New Address

    2. re-INVITE

    Correspondent Host (CH)

    By sending SIP re-INVITE message from new location, CH starts sending its voice packets to the new location and Communication continues seamlessly


    Merits of sip mobility
    Merits of SIP Mobility

    Direct and Optimized Communication

    • One single and simple protocol for signaling and mobility management.

    • End-to-end mobility management support from the terminal  no state in the network.

    • No need for interception and forwarding agents in the network.

    • No triangular routing of information, i.e., lower delay.

      • Provide mobility with route optimization in the absence of Mobile IP (no home and foreign agents).

    • Support real-time and non-real-time applications.


    Security for the mobile user
    Security for the Mobile User

    • BURP: offers user registration/authentication at the application level with a AAA (Diameter) framework. BURP opens the firewall for authorized users.

    • BURP: supports local authentication for quick handoff as well as strong security, even in a visiting network.

    • SIP: “Register” message is authenticated by using AAA framework. Thus, a mobile’s location is updated more securely.


    2 localized multicast service
    2.Localized Multicast Service

    • Multicast streaming traffic (audio/video) that is managed by the local server.

    • The local server can insert local program, information, advertisement into the global streaming program.

    • Timing for the local control is based on the information carried by RTCP from the streaming server.


    Architecture of localized multicast for advertisement
    Architecture of Localized Multicast for Advertisement

    IETF protocols

    SAP- Session Announcement Protocol

    SDP - Session Description Protocol

    RTP/RTCP - Real-Time Transport Protocol

    RTSP – RealTime Streaming Protocol

    (Audio/Video)

    p1

    Station 1

    p2

    Station 2

    RTP/RTCP

    Channel

    monitor

    Channel

    database

    M2

    M1

    P1,a1

    SAP

    Backbone

    m1

    Local

    Server

    Local

    SAP

    Scope 2

    Scope 1

    m2

    P2,a1

    lm

    IRC

    Wireless Clients

    Local

    Program

    Ad server


    3.Outdoor extension

    • Performance evaluation under the environment of Outdoor and/or fast moving.

    • 802.11b (WaveLAN)

    • It is available to experiment with a car moving at the speed less than around 45MPH.

    • Service experiment:

      • IP based Terminal Authentication and/or Handoff

      • IP based Phone, Video and File share services.

    Beam 1

    Beam 3

    Beam 2

    Beam 4

    Intra-

    Subnet

    (Micro)

    Inter-

    Domain

    Inter-

    Subnet (Macro)

    IP based Real-time handoff


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