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Political Committee . Combating drug trafficking in West Africa and The Golden Triangle region. Kelly Lin Co-Chair. Introduction. The Golden Triangle Region

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Political Committee


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political committee

Political Committee

Combating drug trafficking in West Africa and The Golden Triangle region

Kelly Lin Co-Chair

introduction
Introduction

The Golden Triangle Region

In the past The Golden Triangle region is famous for it’s opium trade. After UN has successfully reduced the amount of opium produced methamphetamine is planted to fill in the gap for opium. Methamphetamine has lots of side affects. Farmers and workers in the region often take methamphetamine to increase energy to help them work. Methamphetamine is highly addictive withdraws are often painful.

West Africa

West Africa has become a major transit hub for cocaine. Broad sectors from young citizens to policies have been affected. The impact of the exploding cocaine trade is the weakened country boarder and West Africa’s economy.

Where does the cocaine go?

The cocaine transported to West Africa then goes to Europe on commercial flights, cargo ships, and speed boats. Upon arrival cocaine are mostly distrusted through criminal system.

definition of key terms
Definition of Key Terms

Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC): UNODC is established in 1997 through a merger between the United Nations Drug Control Program and the Centre for International Crime Prevention. Today UNODC deals with problem regarding illicit drugs and international crime. 

Cocaine: Cocaine is an extremely addictive drug that can be taken by snorting, dissolved in water then injected and also by smoking. All three methods of cocaine abuse can lead to severe health problems including increasing the risk of contracting HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases. Cocaine’s effect includes increased energy, reduced fatigue, and mental alertness.

definition of key terms 2
Definition of Key Terms (2)

Methamphetamine: Methamphetamine is a drug that is closely related to amphetamine. It is commonly known as speed, meth, chalk, ice, crystal, and glass. Methamphetamine increases wakefulness, physical activity, blood pressure and body temperature. It produces rapid heart rate, irregular heartbeat, blood pressure and body temperature. Long-term usage of methamphetamine made lead to severe health issues and mental problems such as anxiety, confusion, insomnia, and also severe dental problems. Methamphetamine can be taken by orally, snorting, injecting, or a rock "crystal" that is heated and smoked.

topic summary overview
Topic Summary/Overview

Drug trafficking has become a major issue today, this year in the Political committee we will be focusing on two region that is both famous for its drug trade.

West Africa has become a major transit hub for cocaine. Each year at least fifty tons of cocaine enters the region, and the amount had doubled each year. From 1,323 kilograms in 2005, to 3,161 in 2006, to 6,458 in 2007. The exploding cocaine trade is affecting both the country’s security and its economy. Not only is the country affected, most importantly the health of the people.

Laos, Myanmar, and Thailand makes up the Golden Triangle Region. The region both from its past and now days are famous for its drug trade. In the past the region was famous for its opium trade. After UN successfully reduced the opium, methamphetamine are used to fill in for opium. Farmers on weekends usually take methamphetamine to increase strength and energy, but methamphetamine is highly addictive and leads to serious health issue, and withdraws are often painful.

major party involved
Major Party Involved

UNODC

The Globalization of Crime a Transitional Organized Crime Threat Assessment

In 2010, UNODC presented an assessment on the globalization of crime. The report includes major cocaine seizures in West Africa, how it has affected the region’s security and the people in the region. Today West and Central Africa still accounts for a large share of global seizures of non-specified amphetamines. The region still is the primary concern in terms of the drug issue.

UNODC

Myanmar Situation Assessment on Amphetamine –Type Stimulant

Myanmar is the largest country geographically in South-East Asia. Myanmar produces the largest amount of methamphetamine pills in the region. The report includes the impact of methamphetamine trade, the production in the recent years and also the treatment that UN has done.

major parties involved 2
Major Parties Involved(2)

West Africa Coast Initiative (WACI)

WACI is a joint program that is built to target on both national and regional level, in the areas of law enforcement, forensics, border management, anti-money-laundering and the strengthening of criminal justice institutions, also contributing to peace building initiatives and security sector reforms.

timeline

The Golden Triangle Region

Timeline

West Africa

2001- Alternative Development: Sharing Good Practices Facing Common Problems

“ Alternative Development is a journey towards freedom from illicit drugs, from armed violence in isolated communities, from feudal and fragmented rural systems

towards community based sustainable agricultural economies”

Sandro Calvani, Representative, UNDCP

2012- UNODC West Africa ATS situation report

1997- UNODC Formed

2010- UNODC Regional Programme for West Africa

2005- Success of reducing opium trade in the Golden Triangle Region

1998- Laos ranked third in the world opium production

In this program UNODC will work with all sixteen countries in the West Africa Region

Laos was ranked third in 1998 for the world opium production, throughout these years UN successfully reduced the amount of opium produced in the region.

2005-2007- West Africa cocaine trade doubled each year

un involvement west africa
UN Involvement (West Africa)

Regional Programme for West Africa (2010-2014)

UNODC started a program in 2010, in this program In this program UNODC will work with all sixteen countries in the West Africa Region. The program generally focuses on peace building, and security sector reform. The partners and States will work to strengthen action in the areas of organized crime, trafficking and terrorism, drug prevention and health, both research and raising awareness in the region as well.

Political Declaration on the Prevention Of Drug Abuse, Illicit Drug Trafficking and Organized Crimes in West Africa:

In this declaration, UN asks the member states in West Africa to strengthenenforcement mechanisms. In addition, UN will also take action and help build frameworks to tackle the issue or illicit drug trafficking. The declaration also recognizes the past measures taken, and discuses about what additional actions that has to be taken.

un involvement the golden triangle region
UN Involvement (The Golden Triangle Region)

Resolution 49/3 Strengthening systems for the control of precursor chemicals used in the manufacture of synthetic drugs:

The resolution assembled in 2006 discuses the past measures taken and new strategies for preventing further elicit drug trade. The resolution also noted that how the illicit drug trade is affecting not only the security of the region but also the health of the people taking methamphetamine.

UNODC Myanmar Situation Assessment on Amphetamine –Type Stimulant:

Myanmar is the largest country geographically in South-East Asia. Myanmar produces the largest amount of methamphetamine pills in the region. The report includes the impact of methamphetamine trade, the production in the recent years and also the treatment that UN has done.

possible solutions
Possible Solutions
  • Peace Building: Because of the exploding cocaine trade in West Africa the security across the region is highly threatened Peace building had been included in the passed resolutions and programs in the past. Peace building is a great way to strengthen a region’s security.
  • Boarder Management: Drugs from different parts of the country leaves and enters at a country’s boarder. It is important to have a good management on the country’s boarder. In West Africa most cocaine leaves and enters the region on commercial flights, cargo ships, and speed boats. Methamphetamine is produced in The Golden Triangle Region are exported to different parts of the globe including United States.
  • Education: Educating and spreading awareness in regions are extremely important. Regions that are active in organized crime and drug trafficking, children of the next generation should be educated to avoid joining criminal systems in the future. Raising awareness on how drugs are highly addictive and harmful to people’s health.
possible solutions 2
Possible Solutions (2)
  • Rehab centers: Farmers in The Golden Triangle Region often take methamphetamine on weekends to help increase energy and endurance to help them work on weekdays. Methamphetamine is highly addictive withdraws are often painful. Farmers in the region are often poor and cannot afford to attend rehab centers. Free rehab centers with volunteers should be placed in regions with large amount of methamphetamine users.
bibliography
Bibliography

UNODC Myanmar Situation Assessment on Amphetamine –Type Stimulant

  • http://www.unodc.org/documents/eastasiaandpacific//2010/12/ops-myanmar-ats/Myanmar_ATS_Report_2010_lowres.pdf

West Africa 2012 ATS Situation Report

  • http://www.unodc.org/documents/scientific/ATS_West_Africa_final_2012.pdf

Regional Programme for West Africa 2010-2014

  • http://www.unodc.org/documents/westandcentralafrica//FINAL_CONSOLIDATED_nov22.pdf

Resolution 49/3

  • http://www.unodc.org/pdf/resolutions/cnd_2006_49-3.pdf

Political Declaration on the Prevention Of Drug Abuse, Illicit Drug Trafficking and Organized Crimes in West Africa

  • http://www.unodc.org/westandcentralafrica/en/ecowaspoliticaldeclaration.html

UNODC

  • http://unodc.org/

United Nations on West Africa

  • http://unowa.unmissions.org/

WACI

  • http://unowa.unmissions.org/Default.aspx?tabid=841