11.1 Genes are made of DNA. Griffith Experiment. Avery Experiment. -Destroyed proteins -Mice still died with mix. Hershey Chase Experiement. Virus- nucleic acid wrapped in protein; needs host to reproduce Bacteriophage- virus that infects bacteria. Hershey Chase Experiment. Question 1 & 2.
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
-Mice still died with mix
2. Identify the parts of DNA and how the double helix is put together (bases)? [4 points]
1950’s photographs of the DNA molecule using X-ray crystallography which showed the shape to be a helix
Stays in Nucleus
Uracil pairs with adenine
Nucleus to cytoplasm
Messenger (mRNA), transfer (tRNA), ribosomal (rRNA)DNA & RNA
• tRNA - Transfer RNA: Brings amino acids to ribosomes during translation.
• rRNA - Ribosomal RNA: With ribosomal proteins, makes up the ribosomes, the organelles that translate the mRNA.
1. DNA double helix unwound and separated by RNA polymerase
2. RNA polymerase adds RNA nucleotides together, making a single strand of mRNA which is complementary to 1 strand of the DNA
3. mRNA is processed (modified) before leaving the nucleus
final mRNA product
4. Introns are cut out and exons are spliced together to form the final copy of messenger RNA (mRNA)
1. mRNA leaves the nucleus and is transported to the ribosome where translation takes place
2. Ribosome holds onto the mRNA, the mRNA codon AUG is located in the P site of the ribosome
3. tRNA carries an amino acid to the P site of the ribosome
4. Another tRNA carries the next amino acid to the A site of the ribosome
5. Two amino acids are joined together with a peptide bond
6. tRNA in the P site leaves
7. Ribosome moves along the mRNA until the next codon is located in the A site
(the tRNA which was located in the A site is now in the P site and is holding the peptide chain)
8. tRNA carries the next amino acid to the A site
9. New amino acid is joined to the peptide chain (the polypeptide is made of 3 amino acids)
11. Process continues until a stop codon appears in the A site of the ribosome
12. Polypeptide is now complete
1. Codon is a three-base “word” that codes for one amino acid
2. Determine the amino acid coded for by an mRNA codon use the genetic code
3. Genetic code is universal – all species use the same genetic code, the same 20 amino acids are used in all living organisms
1. A mutation is any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA.
2.Two categories of mutations
a. Base substitutions (point)– replacement of one nucleotide with another
i. This can change the protein or not change the protein
b. Base insertions or base deletions (frameshift) – addition of an extra nucleotide or subtracting a nucleotide
i. Have more effect on the protein than a substitution
1. Mistakes during DNA replication can cause mutations
2. Mutagens – physical or chemical agents that cause mutations
a. Physical mutagens – high energy radiation, X-rays, Ultraviolet light
b. Chemical mutagens – chemicals that are similar to DNA bases and cause incorrect base-pairing
Body Cells introns, which break up the amino acid coding sequence into segments called exons.
Genetic disordersMutations Effects