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Unit 6. Risks. Preparation Activities. To present the Ss some pictures of risky sports. Bungee. Ice Climbing. Rock Climbing. Sky Diving. Surfing. Drifting. Skiing. Question. Why do people feel risky with certain activities?. Risks.

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unit 6

Unit 6

Risks

preparation activities
Preparation Activities
  • To present the Ss some pictures of risky sports
question
Question
  • Why do people feel risky with certain activities?
risks

Risks

Risk is the probability of losing something of value. Since we value life above other things, the greatest risk for most people is the risk of death. Other things we value include health, safety, money, property, relationships and happiness.

questions
Questions
  • In what areas is it possible for people to get risks?

Physical Risks

Financial Risks

Emotional Risks

risks in jobs

Task 1

Risks in Jobs

Directions: Many jobs involve risks. Some even have several risks. Work in pairs to classify the following list of jobs.

coal-miner stockbroker policeman

president fireman singer

lawyer teacher businessman

pilot model writer

farmer factory worker psychiatrist

chemical engineer computer programmer

risks in jobs3

Task 1

Risks in Jobs

Directions: Though many jobs involve different types of risks, we still have to do it.

  • Do you wish to run the risk?
  • What do you think is the most risky job? Why?
questions1
Questions
  • Why would people like to take risks?
slide20

Task 3

Risks in Success

  • Most people can do extraordinary things if they have the confidence or take therisks. Yet most people don’t. They sit in front of the telly and treat life as if it goes on forever.
  • — Philip Andrew Adams
  • However well organized the foundations of life may be, life must always be full of risks.
  • — Henry Havelock Ellis
slide23

Work in pairs to answer the following questions.

What is risk? Could you think of as many risks as you can in our life?

Sample

Risk is the probability that something bad will happen. Life is full of risks. For example, people may hurt themselves when riding bicycles by getting involved in traffic accidents. A passenger may be killed in an air crash, or even a child will be faced with sharp toys and poor childcare. There may be natural disasters such as hurricane, tsunami, infectious diseases or dangerous flood. It seems the list could go on and on.

slide24

What should we do in face of risks?

Sample

When faced with risks, we should stay calm and try to get help. Sometimes we can take measures to reduce the probabilities of risks. For instance, we can reduce the speed when riding bicycles or motors; we’d better not go swimming alone; we shouldn’t try dangerous games without any guidance or protection. We should stop children from playing dangerous and harmful games.

slide25

What’s the difference and similarity between hypochondria and anxiety about risks?

Sample

Hypochondria, fear of disease and suspicious of being ill is like anxiety about risks in some way. Both are the result of partial information. But the big difference is that the hypochondriac can usually turn to a physician to clarify the whole situation. Then he knows clearly whether he has the suspected disease or not. As to the risks of life, the situation is not that simple, for risks are almost always a matter of probability rather than certainty.

slide27

Risks are always a matter of probability rather than certainty.(Para. 1-3)

comparison between hypochondria and anxiety

about the risks of life:

In both cases,

the fear or

anxiety feeds

on partial

information.

The hypochondriac can

turn to a physician to get a

definitive clarification of

the situation.

Risks are a matter of

probability rather than

certainty.

slide28

Example 1

We can inform ourselves about the relevant risks before any decision-making by measuring the level of a risk.(Para. 4-7)

  • We should inform ourselves about the relevantrisks before making any decision. (Para. 4)
  • We need to know the relative safety of large cars and small cars before our purchase. (Para. 5)
slide29

Example 2

Example 3

  • Problem
  • How do we measure the level of a risk? (Para. 6)
  • Which activity is riskier, riding in a car or mining?
  • (Para. 6)
  • Solution
  • Risk levels can be expressed in ratios or fractions.
  • (Para. 6-7)
  • Mining is four times riskier than riding in a car. (Para. 7)
slide30

Conclusion(para.8)

Common sense and

relevant information

are keys to

managing risks in a

sensible way.

slide32

indefinitely(adv.)(Line 10, Para. 1)

for a period of time without a fixed limit

无限期地,不确定地

Translation

She was allowed to keep the book indefinitely.

她被允许无限期保存那本书。

那个关键的商务谈判不能被

无限期地推迟。

That key business talk/negotiation

should not be postponed indefinitely.

slide33

definite – indefinite – indefinitely

definite

adj. clearly known, seen, or stated; without

any uncertainty 明确的, 一定的

请完成下面的句子。

Exercise

我们定一下下次比赛的确切日期吧。

Let's fix _____________ for the next match.

a definite date

受害者的父母要求一个明确的答复。

The victim’s parents demanded _______________.

a definite answer

slide34

definitive(adj.)(Line 13, Para. 2)

providing a last decision that cannot be

questioned or changed; conclusive

确定的,决定性的,有权威的

请完成下面的句子。

Exercise

The definitive decision

__________ by the Supreme Court is

unlikely to be changed.

最高法院的最终决定是不太可能改变的。

The definitive edition

___________________ of that book has been revised

several times.

那本书的最终版本已经经历了几次修改。

That department could provide you with _________

_________________.

那个部门能够给你出具一份权威的鉴定书(appraisal)。

a piece of

definitive appraisal

slide35

句型应用

It is much more difficult when anxiety about other forms of risk is concerned, because with many risks, the situation is not as simple.

(Line 15)

译 文

when…sth. is concerned:

就……来说,就……而言;

有时常用 as far as sth. is concerned表示。

slide36

Example

As far as policy is concerned, 

I have to say something.

谈到政策,我得说几句。

When love is  concerned, many people get less

wise than they usual are

涉及到爱情时,很多人就变得不像平时那么聪明。

slide37

译 文

It is much more difficult when anxiety about other forms of risk is concerned, because with many risks, the situation is not as simple.

(Line 15)

但当涉及到其它形式的风险时,事情就要困难得多,因为对许多风险来说,情况并不那么简单。

slide38

句型应用

But what if you get hit from the side and end up trapped inside the vehicle, unable to escape because of a damaged seat belt mechanism?( Line20)

译 文

what if…?相当于what would happen if…

意为:“如果……那又怎么办呢?”

slide39

Example

What if she changes her mind and doesn’t turn up?

如果她改变主意不来怎么办?

要是他妈妈不喜欢这个女孩该怎么办?

Whatif his mother doesn’t

like the girl?

slide40

end up trapped 一句中 trapped 是过去分词表示伴随,本分句译为“最终被卡在车里”。

end up, 最后成为(处于),后面可接名词(短语)、形容词、现在分词、过去分词或介词短语作状语。

Example

He ended up (as) head of the firm.

他最后成了公司的主管。

slide41

Example

If you continue to steal

you’ll end up in prison.

你要继续行窃终归得进监狱。

We didn’t like it first, but we ended up cheering.

一开始我们并不喜欢它,可最后我们却为之欢呼。

If he carries on driving like that, he’ll end up dead.

如果他继续那样开车的话,最后会送命的。

slide42

请完成下面的句子。

Exercise

The party _______________________ of Auld Lang

Syne.

聚会在“友谊地久天长”的歌声中结束。

ended up with the singing

you’ll end up nowhere

If you don’t work hard, _____________________.

如果你不努力,终将一事无成。

He jumped into the river to save the child but

________________________________.

他跳进河里去救那个小孩,结果却被水草缠住了。

ended up trapped by the waterweeds

slide43

译 文

But what if you get hit from the side and end up trapped inside the vehicle, unable to escape because of a damaged seat belt mechanism?( Line20)

倘若你的车侧面被撞,结果你被困在车里,又因安全带装置遭破坏而无法挣脱,那怎么办呢?

slide44

inflate (Line 27, Para. 3)

v. 1) to fill with air or gas to make bigger

(使)充满气体,(使)膨胀

Translation

The kid was trying to inflate a

balloon but failed at last.

那个孩子想给气球充气,

但最后失败了。

Inflating that life jacket

___________________needs special skills.

给那件救生衣(life jacket)充气需要特殊的技巧。

slide45

2) To make higher or greater than it should be, or make sth more important than it really is

Translation

The government of that small

country always inflates

the paper currency.

那个小国的政府总是滥发纸币。

The story is inflated by the media。

slide46

名词形式:

inflation (n.)充气,膨胀;通货膨胀, (物价)暴涨

Translation

Seriousinflation worsened the living conditions of

the poor families of that country.

严重的通货膨胀使那个国家的贫困家庭的生活雪上

加霜。

政府应采取措施控制通货膨胀。

Government should take measures to control

inflation.

slide47

otherwise (Line 28, Para. 3)

adv. 1) in a different way; differently

不同地

Translation

She said that young contestant would lose, but I

thought otherwise.

她认为那位年轻的参赛者会输,我的看法却不是这样。

slide48

2) apart from that; in other or different respects

(在)其他方面

请翻译或完成下面的句子。

Exercise

His nephew is noisy,

But otherwise a nice boy

他的外甥爱吵闹,

但在其他方面倒是一个好孩子。

It was a bit long, but ________________________.

那影片是长了一点儿,其它方面倒还不错。

otherwise it was a good film

slide49

conj. 3) if not(在不同情况下)否则

Translation

You’d better go now, otherwise

you’ll miss your train.

你最好现在就走,否则你就赶不上

火车了。

我又多写了一页,不然的话已经完成了。

I've got one more page to write; otherwise I've

already finished.

slide50

  • But the fact that there are risks
  • associated with everything we are going
  • to dodoes not, or should not reduce us
  • to trembling neurotics. (Line 32, Para. 4)

reduce…to…bring someone or something to (a lower or weaker state, condition or role) 使某人陷入某种(通常指更坏的)状态或状况中

  • trembling neurotics: a state of extremely nervous and worried that seems to be trembling
slide51

  • But the fact that there are risks associated
  • With everything we are going to dodoes not,
  • or should not reduce us to trembling
  • neurotics. (Line 32, Para. 4)

Although there are potential risks in everything we are going to do, we should not get ourselves excessively anxious and emotional upset.

slide52

reduce…to… (Line 33, Para. 4)

  • bring someone or something to (a
  • lower or weaker state, condition or
  • role) 使某人陷入某种(通常指更坏的)状态或状况中

Translation

It is greed that reduced

him to a prisoner.

贪婪让他变成了阶下囚。

因为吸毒,他从一个百万富翁沦为乞丐。

He was reduced from a millionaire to a beggar as a

result of taking drugs.

slide53

2) change (something) to (its parts);

present a problem or subject in (a

simplified form) (Line55,Para.7)

将某事物概括或简化成某种形式

请完成下面的句子。

Exercise

reduced the

The earthquake ___________

_____________.

地震将房屋变成了瓦砾(rubble)。

house to rubble

be reduced to three

The president’s speech can _________________

__________.

总统的演讲可以被归纳为三点。

main points

slide54

accordingly (Line 34, Para. 4)

adv. 1) in a way that is appropriate to

the situation相应地

请完成下面的句子。

Exercise

we will act

Please inform us of your decision and __________

___________.

请告知我们你的决定,我们将会采取相应的行动。

accordingly

His friends all considered him their leader and

____________________.

他的朋友把他视做领袖并且用对待领袖的方式对待

他。

treated him accordingly

slide55

2) as a result of something 因此,从而

Translation

Super Girl Li Yuchun looks rather

boyish. Accordingly, she could get

countless girl fans’ support.

超级女生李宇春有男孩子的气质,

因此,她能够得到无数的女歌迷的

支持。

slide56

The answer is that you are roughly twice as likely

to die in a serious crash in a small car than in a

large one. (Line36, Para. 5)

As likely to … than: as likely to… as

Twice as … as… & twice more than …

slide57

The answer is that you are roughly twice as likely

to die in a serious crash in a small car than in a

large one. (Line36, Para. 5)

The probability that you are to die in a serious crash in a small car is nearly twice as much as you are in a large car.

slide58

assess (Line 50, Para. 6)

v. 1) calculate what something costs or

is worth估价,估计

请完成下面的句子。

Exercise

The value of that Chen Yifei’s painting ____

__________________.

那幅陈逸飞的油画被估价为50万美元。

was

assessed at $500,000

invite several experts to

They will go to Beijing to ____________________

________________.

他们将前往北京邀请几位专家来为那些古玩(curio)

估价。

assess those curios

slide59

2) carefully consider a situation, person, or

problem in order to make a judgment

评价,评定

Translation

It’s too early to assess the effects of that new

legislation.

现在评价那部新法规的效果还为时尚早。

Don’t assess others with any prejudice.

在评价别人的时候,不要有任何的偏见。

名词形式:assessment

n. 1)估计,估算2) 评估,评价

slide60

ratio (Line 54, Para. 6)

n. a relationship between two things

expressed by two numbers or

amounts 比,比率

Translation

The ratio of students to teachers in that elementary

school is 30:1.

那所小学的师生比例是1比30。

参加会议的男女之比为3比1。

The ratio of men to women at the conference was

three to one.

slide61

versus (Line 56, Para. 7)

prep. (Abbr. v. or vs.) in opposition to

or against especially in a game of

sports (尤指在体育比赛中)……

对……,以 ……为对手;与……相比

Translation

It’s going to be The Huston Rockets versus The

Detroit Pistons in this season’s NBA Finals.

本赛季的NBA总决赛将会在休斯敦火箭队和底特律活

塞队之间展开。

It’s necessary to weigh up the benefits of tax cuts

versus those of increased public spending.

有必要对减税带来的好处与民众 消费增长所带来

的好处进行对比。

slide62

句子分析

Oncewe understandthatrisk can never be totally

eliminated from any situation and that, therefore,

nothing is completely safe, we will then see that

the issue is not one of avoiding risks altogether

but rather one of managing risks in a sensible

way. (Line 68)

译 文

本句是一个主从复合句,从句Oncewe

understand…safe中,谓语 understand后有两个由that引导的并列宾语从句,主句we will then see…way中,动词see也带了一个由that引导的宾语从句,从句的主要结构为the issue is not…but rather…。

slide63

译 文

Once we understand thatrisk can never be totally

eliminated from any situation and that, therefore,

nothing is completely safe, wewill then see that

the issue is not one of avoiding risks altogether

but rather one of managing risks in a sensible

way. (Line 68)

一旦我们懂得在任何情况下都不能完全排除危险,因而任何事情都不是绝对安全的,我们就会明白问题不在于彻底避免危险而在于如何理智地对付危险。

slide65

现代生活中充满了诸多威胁。

Modern life is full of all manner of threats.

我们的疑虑无休止的增加。

Our uncertainties multiply indefinitely.

风险几乎总是一个可能性的问题而非确定性可言。

Risks are almost always a matter of probabilities rather than certainty.

衡量所涉及的风险程度

Measure the level of risks in question

slide66

我们做的事没一件是百分之百安全的。

Nothing we do is completely safe.

关键在于见机行事。

The point is to act accordingly.

从刚才讨论的情况看

In the case just discussed

后者其实比前者危险四倍。

The latter turns out to be four times riskier than the former.