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  1. BRITISH COLUMBIA TO 1896 Chapter 6


  3. “54° 40’ OR FIGHT” • Mid-1840’s—US wanted to expand its territory • 1844—James Polk ran for president • His slogan: “54° 40’ or fight” • He won and in 1845, tried to negotiate with British government for the Oregon Territory • Neither wanted war the 1818 boundary was extended along the 49th parallel to the Pacific Ocean • British kept control of Vancouver • Land south of Vancouver became American

  4. James Douglas • 1848—British government created the Crown colony of Vancouver Island • James Douglas became governor • Did not like Americans • Encouraged British settlement in the colony • Thought prospective colonists should receive a free grant of land • British government wanted to recreate the English class system

  5. English Class System PROCESS RESULT • Settlers purchased land at 1 an acre • Minimum 20 acre purchase • Settlers who bought over 100 acres had to bring 5 people to work the land • Small numbers of landowners • Many servants to farm the land • 1849—all settlers were ex-HBC workers

  6. Mining Starts • 1840’s—Coal discovered near Nanaimo • Immigrants arrived to be miners • Royal Navy became their first customer • Esquimalt harbor established next to Fort Victoria as a naval base • Warships needed a supply of coal • Mid-1850’s—more mines established at Cumberland north of Vancouver Island

  7. Landed Gentry • Royal Navy were ‘gentlemen’ and were a big part of Victorian social life • Came from the privileged class in England • Douglas liked social gatherings but: • Didn’t like the Royal Navy for not owning any land but still being of a high class • He and ex-HBC workers didn’t like the landed gentry because they were shunned and prejudiced

  8. Legislative Assembly • 1856—Douglas created a Legislative Assembly • Response to ex-HBC’s complaints: • Vancouver Island was becoming a private club for the landed gentry • Was small with 7 voted representatives • Only landowners could vote • About 40 of 450 adult citizens owned land • Douglas wanted final say in the colony • Assembly could pass resolutions but not enforce them • Could grant monies for the government’s use • This took power from the landed gentry because they did not have property and therefore could not vote

  9. NATIVE NEGOTIATIONS • 1855—774 immigrants on Vancouver Island and over 30,000 aboriginal peoples • Douglas had to negotiate with them to attract more settlers so the colony would grow • They had lived there longer and had all of the rich farmland between Fort Victoria and Nanaimo • Douglas’s idea: • They would surrender the land • They would have fishing and hunting rights on the surrendered land

  10. A TREATY • 1854—One of his treaties where ‘our’ refers to the Native peoples: • The conditions of, or understanding of, this sale is this, that our village sites and enclosed fields are to be kept for our own use, for the use of our children, and for those who may follows after us; and the land shall be properly surveyed hereafter. It is understood, however , that the land itself, with these small exceptions, becomes the entire property of the white people forever; it is also understood that we are at liberty to hunt over the unoccupied land, and to carry on our fisheries as formerly.

  11. COMPENSATION • Each family got an annual £210 shillings • Seemed Douglas was leasing the land • Governments of Britain, Canada and BC know the aboriginal peoples had title to the lands • Douglas treaties were the only of the sort to be negotiated in the 19th Century


  13. A FANTASY • People believed they could run along a creek pick up fist-sized nuggets and be wealthy overnight • How to find gold in real life: • Stake a claim (buy a spot) that you and maybe your workers would work • Sink a mine shaft down to bedrock and bring it to the surface • Gold-bearing clay and sand would be washed away to reveal gold • Was a very tedious process

  14. SACRAMENTO GOLD RUSH • 1848—Gold was discovered along the Sacramento River in California • 1849—Thousands left their jobs and homes to travel to California • Went overland across the US • Went overseas around the tip of South America and up the Pacific • Few survived the journey • Few survivors got rich • Few made it back

  15. 49’ERS • Yeah, a football team • Named after the prospectors who showed late and ended up working for original claim holders • Late-comers were broke and unemployed by the mid-1850’s • Moved to Washington and Oregon after the gold rush ended

  16. RIVER RUSHES • 1857—HBC trader arrived in Fort Victoria with 2 vials of gold dust which he panned in the Thompson River • He presented the gold to Governor Douglas • Douglas feared the news of a gold rush would bring floods of greedy miners into his colony • Winter of 1857-58—His fear became a reality • Ex-California rushers moved up to the banks of the Thompson and Fraser Rivers

  17. SAN FRANCISCO • 1858—Word reached San Francisco • Hundreds of unemployed miners tried to book tickets on any ship going north • First ship to arrive was the Yosemite • April 25, 1858 about 450 miners landed in Fort Victoria • Ships continued to arrive • End of the Summer—Over 10,000 miners were working on the Fraser River • Mostly Americans

  18. TOO MANY AMERICANS • Douglas was afraid of territorial expansion of the US • Contacted the Colonial Office in London • Made Douglas Governor of the Crown colony of BC • 1859—Britain sent a group of Royal Engineers under Colonel Richards Moody • Provided a level of military authority in the new colony • They surveyed the region, giving technical assistance in building roads and towns


  20. CARIBOO GOLD RUSH • 1859—Gold deposits in the Fraser River had been depleted • Miners thought the gold has eroded from a larger source upstream • The moved upstream, searching for the source • 1860-61—Miners found the source that fed the Fraser River: • The Cariboo region in south central BC

  21. The Cariboo Road • 1860’s—Douglas realized his colony wasn’t getting any profit from the mining • All gold taken from BC was taxable • Douglas decided to build a road to the goldfields • This would ensure gold left via the Fraser and not US territory • It would also promote settlement and encourage economic development

  22. THE ROUTES Long Route Short Route • Lake Harrison and Lillooet River • Took some steamer routes along the interior • Easier • Expensive • Through the Fraser Canyon • Dangerous • Cheaper • This route was chosen for the cost, although it was more difficult to make • 1862—Construction started

  23. THE COMPLETION • A marvellous feat of engineering • Covered 650Km from Yale along the Fraser Canyon to the new centre of Cariboo, Barkerville • Took 4 years to complete • Over $750 000 • Mid-1860’s—Gold rush was ending • Gold revenues were falling fast when road was completed • The colony took the loss hard and did not recover for a long time


  25. NEED FOR UNION • Rapid loss of population and revenue hurt the two colonies • Suffered great financial losses • Representatives from BC and Vancouver Island wanted to join the colonies • This would help economically • 1866—Vacouver Island had a $300 000 debt • BC had just over $1 000 000 of debt • May—Both colonies found out their local bank credit had run out

  26. BC IS BORN • British colonial office agreed with the idea of uniting the BC and Vancouver Island colonies • Did not want to give large subsidies • August 6, 1866—British government formally united the two colonies to form British Columbia • Governor Seymour; more popular, became the new colony’s governor • Legislative Assembly was established with 23 members • Only 9 were elected • 5 representatives from the mainland and 4 from the Island

  27. UNION WAS NOT THE CURE? • Union did not solve their problems • Population continued to decline • Money problems also continued • A more permanent solution was needed ?

  28. FACTIONS OF CONFEDERATION • There were three groups: • Strongly opposed Confederation • Supported Confederation • Supported annexation by the US • Mostly Victoria businessmen • 1868-1870—Debate was never-ending • BC’s future was unknown

  29. A STEP TOWARDS CONFEDERATION • 1868—Election held for Legislative Assembly • Mainland—Candidates supported confederation • Island—Candidates were against confederation • Governor Seymour died suddenly while touring the northern communities • Anthony Musgrave, John A. Macdonald’s personal friend, was Seymour’s successor • Macdonald had recommended Musgrave • Instructions from the British Colonial Office: • Get BC to join Canada as quickly as possible

  30. CONFEDERATION ACHIEVED • Musgrave promised an entirely elected Legislature once Confederation was reached • With a promised responsible government, terms of Confederation was accepted collectively • July 20, 1871—British Columbia officially joined Canada


  32. CPR PROPOSITION • Elected mainland representatives supported Confederation • January, 1868—Forwarded resolutions to the government of Canada • Proposed that Canada be responsible for BC’s debt • Federal government should build a transcontinental railway as a link to the East • Resolutions were overpowered in the Legislative Assembly by a vote of 12-4 • Mainland representatives spent the year promoting Confederation through the press • Believed only the public’s support could convince the governor and his supporters

  33. ANNEXATIONISTS • Circulated a petition to be sent to President Grant in Washington • In Victoria, a population of 3000, only 125 signatures were collected • Annexation was not popular • Musgrave decided to co-opt the anti-confederation supporters • They would make a policy on the terms of union and travel to Ottawa together to present the proposition • Canadian government agreed and construction was to begin within 2 years and be completed in 10

  34. RAILWAY SURVEY • Macdonald had no idea of the cost of the railway • Interior BC was mostly unknown • Federal government sent out surveyors to find all possible routes • This bought time to find a way to finance the railway • 2 major groups: • Island politicians wanted the railway to go across the central interior down the Homathco Rive to Bute Inlet, across the Georgia Strait to the Island • Mainland politicians wanted the route through the Fraser Canyon to the Burrard Inlet

  35. “BATTLE OF THE ROUTES” • Alexander Mackenzie succeeded John A. Macdonald as Prime Minister • He was reluctant to build the railway • 1870’s—Groups pressured the government to pick their route for the CPR • 1878—21 routes has been considered for personal benefit

  36. NO METROPOLIS • 1881—Port Moody was the designated terminus for the CPR • Speculators bought land, buying into the future metropolis • 1884—William Van Horne arrived to make the precise location for the terminus • Discovered the harbour was made of tidal flats • Could not hold deep-sea vessels needing to dock to load and unload cargo • Continues his search for anchorage

  37. NEW TERMINUS • 1884—William Van Horne arrived in Port Moody and was greeted by David Oppenheimer • He took Horne around Gastown and rowed him through the inner and outer harbours • Horne was impressed by the amount of land that could be used for the terminus • Oppenheimer offered half his land to the CPR as well as other landholders to seal the deal • Smart because he knew the price of land would skyrocket with the CPR terminus there • 1885—CPR was completed


  39. THE YOUNGEST COMMUNITY • Youngest major community in BC • Other major centres started with fur trade or the Cariboo Gold Rush • During this time settlers were discouraged because: • Burrard Inlet isn’t fed by a major river • Vancouver’s peninsula is covered by a dense forest

  40. “GASSY JACK” • 1865—Hastings Sawmill opened south of the inlet • North of the inlet Swell Moody opened a mill in what is now North Vancouver • 1868—“Gassy Jack” Deighton opened a saloon near the Hastings Mill because it was dry • Other stores and saloons were opened • Called “Granville” or “Gastown” after the founder

  41. DAVID OPPENHEIMER • Moved to the slightly populated area near the Burrard Inlet in the decline of the Cariboo Gold Rush • Thought it would become a major port • Was confident that Vancouver would win the “Battle of the Routes” and become the terminus • 1877—Bought a huge amount of land south of the inlet

  42. “THE FATHER OF VANCOUVER” • By 1885—Oppenheimer owned most of the land in Vancouver • 1888—Ran for mayor and won by acclamation • In 4 years of being mayor he: • Concentrated on infrastructure • Laid pipes under Burrard Inlet to carry water from watersheds on the north shore • Much of Vancouver’s water comes from this source today • Built a sewage system • Bankrolled an electric streetcar system and a power company called BC Electric to run the system • Donated land for school, parks and with a new city council, established Stanley Park as a permanent green space • Encouraged steamer companies to open the area to trade across the Pacific


  44. People • Responsible Government: • Contractor: • Landed Gentry: • Title: • a government in which the executive council is responsible to the legislative assembly, whose members are representatives of the people • one who supplies workers • the British upper class “landed” in another country • established or recognized right to something

  45. Verbs • To rework: • To undercut: • To co-opt: • To stake claim: • To pan: • To inflate: • to go back and try to extract more gold from and area after is has already been worked • to sell work at a lower price than average • to bring someone into a group by capitalizing on their strengths, even if they disagree with you • the legal right to mine gold, or other minerals, on a specific piece of land • to search for gold by panning gravel • to increase the price of something dramatically

  46. Money • Shilling: • Subsidy: • Black Market Economy: • Head Tax: • Frugal: • Speculators: • Bankrolled: • an old British coinage, about one twentieth of a pound • a directs financial aid from a higher level of government • an illegal or completely unregulated economy where normal price controls do not apply • a tax imposed on each person entering a country • careful with money • people who buy and sell land for profit • funded

  47. Land • Parallel: • Tidal Flat: • Bedrock: • Service Town: • Metropolis: • an imaginary line north or south of the equator • a low-lying marsh • solid rock underneath looser materials suck as soil • a town that provides services to people engaged in one main industry • a chief city