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CPS 216: Advanced Database Systems. Shivnath Babu Fall 2006. Outline for Today. What this class is about: Data management What we will cover in this class Logistics. Application. Data. Data Management. Query. Query. Query. D ata B ase M anagement S ystem (DBMS).

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outline for today
Outline for Today
  • What this class is about: Data management
  • What we will cover in this class
  • Logistics
data management

Application

Data

Data Management

Query

Query

Query

DataBase Management System (DBMS)

example at a company
Example: At a Company

Query 1: Is there an employee named “Nemo”?

Query 2: What is “Nemo’s” salary?

Query 3: How many departments are there in the company?

Query 4: How many employees have Salary >= 80K?

Query 5: What is the name of “Nemo’s” department?

Query 6: How many employees are there in the

“Accounts” department?

Employee

Department

d ata b ase m anagement s ystem dbms

High-level

Query Q

Answer

Translates Q into

best execution plan

for current conditions,

runs plan

DataBase Management System (DBMS)

DBMS

Data

example store that sells cars

Join (Cars.OwnerID = Owners.ID)

Filter (Make = Honda and

Model = Accord)

Filter (Age <= 23)

Example: Store that Sells Cars

Owners of

Honda Accords

who are <=

23 years old

Cars

Owners

d ata b ase m anagement s ystem dbms1

High-level

Query Q

Answer

Translates Q into

best execution plan

for current conditions,

runs plan

Keeps data safe and correct despite failures,

concurrent updates, online processing, etc.

DataBase Management System (DBMS)

DBMS

Data

dbms is multi user
DBMS is multi-user
  • ExampleGet account balance from database;If balance > amount of withdrawal then balance = balance - amount of withdrawal; dispense cash; store new balance into database;
  • Homer at ATM1 withdraws $100
  • Marge at ATM2 withdraws $50
  • Initial balance = $400, final balance = ?
    • Should be $250 no matter who goes first
final balance 300
Final balance = $300

Homer withdraws $100:

Marge withdraws $50:

read balance; $400if balance > amount then balance = balance - amount; $350 write balance; $350

read balance; $400

if balance > amount then balance = balance - amount; $300 write balance; $300

final balance 350
Final balance = $350

Homer withdraws $100:

Marge withdraws $50:

read balance; $400

if balance > amount then balance = balance - amount; $350 write balance; $350

read balance; $400

if balance > amount then balance = balance - amount; $300 write balance; $300

concurrency control in dbms
Concurrency control in DBMS
  • Similar to concurrent programming problems
    • But data is not all in main-memory
  • Appears similar to file system concurrent access?
    • Approach taken by MySQL initially; now MySQL offers better alternatives
  • But want to control at much finer granularity
      • Or else one withdrawal would lock up all accounts!
recovery in dbms
Recovery in DBMS
  • Example: balance transferdecrement the balance of account X by $100;increment the balance of account Y by $100;
  • Scenario 1: Power goes out after the first instruction
  • Scenario 2: DBMS buffers and updates data in memory (for efficiency); before they are written back to disk, power goes out
  • Log updates; undo/redo during recovery
d ata b ase m anagement s ystem dbms2

High-level

Query Q

Answer

Translates Q into

best execution plan

for current conditions,

runs plan

Keeps data safe and correct despite failures,

concurrent updates, online processing, etc.

DataBase Management System (DBMS)

DBMS

Data

summary of modern dbms features
Summary of modern DBMS features
  • Persistent storage of data
  • Logical data model; declarative queries and updates ! physical data independence
  • Multi-user concurrent access
  • Safety from system failures
  • Performance, performance, performance
    • Massive amounts of data (terabytes ~ petabytes)
    • High throughput (thousands ~ millions transactions per minute)
    • High availability (¸ 99.999% uptime)
modern dbms architecture

Parser

Logical query plan

Query Optimizer

Physical query plan

Query Executor

Access method API calls

Storage Manager

Disk(s)

Storage system API calls

Modern DBMS Architecture

Applications

SQL

DBMS

File system API calls

OS

course outline
Course Outline
  • 50% of the class is about core DBMS concepts
    • Query execution, query optimization, transactions, recovery, etc.
    • Textbook material
  • 50% of the class is on “what is happening today in data management”
    • Data streams
    • Web search – Google, Yahoo!
    • XML and data integration
    • Data mining
    • Sensor data management
using a traditional dbms

Query

Result

Query

Result

Using a Traditional DBMS

User/Application

Loader

Table R

Table S

new approach for data streams

Register

Continuous Query

(Standing Query)

Result

Input streams

New Approach for Data Streams

User/Application

Stream Query

Processor

example continuous standing queries
Example Continuous (Standing) Queries
  • Web
    • Amazon’s best sellers over last hour
  • Network Intrusion Detection
    • Track HTTP packets with destination address matching a prefix in given table and content matching “*\.ida”
  • Finance
    • Monitor NASDAQ stocks between $20 and $200 that have moved down more than 2% in the last 20 minutes
course outline1
Course Outline
  • 50% of the class is about core DBMS concepts
    • Query execution, query optimization, transactions, recovery, etc.
    • Textbook material
  • 50% of the class is on “what is happening today in data management”
    • Data streams
    • Web search – Google, Yahoo!
    • XML and data integration
    • Data mining
    • Sensor data management
new challenges in dbmss

High-level

Query Q

Answer

New Challenges in DBMSs

DBMS

TeraBytes  PetaBytes

<CD>

<TITLE>Empire B.</TITLE>

<ARTIST>Bob Dylan</ARTIST>

<COUNTRY>USA</COUNTRY>

<COMPANY>Columbia

</COMPANY>

<PRICE>10.90</PRICE>

</CD>

Data

course logistics
Course Logistics
  • Recommended reference: Database Systems: The Complete Book, by H. Garcia-Molina, J. D. Ullman, and J. Widom
  • Web site:http://www.cs.duke.edu/education/courses/fall06/cps216
  • Grading:
    • Homework Assignments 15%
    • Project 25%
    • Midterm 25%
    • Final 35%
summary data management is important
Summary: Data Management is Important
  • Core aspect of most sciences and engineering today
  • Core need in industry
  • Cool mix of theory and systems
  • Chances are you will find something interesting even if you primary interest is elsewhere