CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM &DIFFICILE. BY, J.SUKESH KUMAR, ROLL NO:29. Clostridium botulinum. Scientific classsification. Domain : bacteria Division : firmicutes Class : clostridia Order : clostridiales Family : clostridiaceae Genus : clostridium Species : botulinum.
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CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM &DIFFICILE BY,J.SUKESH KUMAR,ROLL NO:29.
Scientific classsification. • Domain : bacteria • Division : firmicutes • Class : clostridia • Order : clostridiales • Family : clostridiaceae • Genus : clostridium • Species : botulinum
Introduction & morphology. • it was first isolated by emile van ermengem. • It was a gram positive,rod shaped. • It is an obligate anerobe,however tolerates traces of oxygen due to the presence of an enzyme called super oxide dismutase (SOD),which is an anti-oxidant.
Cont………. • It is a spore former producing oval,sub-terminal bulging endospores. • It is motile by peritrichate flagella. • It is non capsulated. • It is about 5 x 1 micro meters in size. Habitat • it is a saprophyte growing in soil,vegetables,animal manure and sea mud.
Cultural characterstics • Optimum temperature is 35 deg celcius. • Growth occurs on ordinary media. • Colonies are--- large irregular semi-transparent with fimbriate border. • Spores are produced consistantly when grown on alkaline glucose gelatin media.
Classification • eight types have been identified(A,B,C1,C2,D,E,F,G) • Classified based on the immunological differences in the toxins produced by them. • all types produce neuro toxins except C2 which produce enterotoxin.
Toxin • It produces an exotoxin. • It is initially a non toxic pro-toxin which becomes active by action of trypsin. • MW is 70000. • Lethal dose for humans is 1-2 mic gm. • It is a neurotoxin.
It leads to dysphagia,diplopia,disarthria. • Death is caused by respiratory paralysis.
Food borne:- • source is usually preserved foods. • Symptoms include vomiting,thirst, constipation,dysphagia. • Death is due to respiratory failure &occurs 1-7 days after onset. • Wound botulism:- • Mainly due to wound infection with cl.botulinum. • Symptoms are Similar to food borne except for GIT components which are absent.
Infant botulism • It occurs in infants below six months. • Manifestations are constipation, poor feeding,Lethargy,weakness,altered cry,loss of head control. • patients excreate toxin&spores in faeces. • It produces SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME(SIDS).
Lab diagnosis • Demonstration of bacillus in food or faeces. • Typing is done by passive protection with type specific anti toxin. • Occasionally can be demonstrable in patients blood,or in liver in postmortem. • Control • Proper canning and preservation. • Prophylactic dose of antitoxin during out breaks. • Active immunisation in lab workers is effective.
It was first isolated from faeces of newborn infants. • Morphology • It is long, slender, gram positive bacillus. • It is non hemolytic,saccharolytic,&weakly proteolytic. • Pathogenesis • Antibiotic colitis is due to active multiplication of cl difficile and its production of entero toxin &cytotoxin.
Lab diagnosis • Demonstration of the toxin in feces of the patients by its characterstic HEP-2 and human diploid cell cultures or by ELISA. • The toxin is neutralised by CL SORDELLI anti toxin.
Treatment • Metronidazole is the drug of choice • Vancomycin and bacitracin are also useful