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Remote Sensing in Natural Hazard Monitoring. Bruce H. Ramsay*, William Y. Tseng* , George Stephen*, Robert Fennimore*, and Fernando Sotelo** *NOAA/NESDIS, Washington, D.C. 20233, USA **Litton PRC, GOES Data Distribution System Support Contractor, Washington, D.C. 20233, USA.

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remote sensing in natural hazard monitoring

Remote Sensing in Natural Hazard Monitoring

Bruce H. Ramsay*, William Y. Tseng* , George Stephen*, Robert Fennimore*, and Fernando Sotelo**

*NOAA/NESDIS, Washington, D.C. 20233, USA

**Litton PRC, GOES Data Distribution System Support Contractor, Washington, D.C. 20233, USA

table of contents
Table of Contents
  • Introduction
    • OSEI Purpose
    • Support Policies
    • Defining a Natural Hazard/Significant Event
  • The Process
    • Identification of Significant Events
    • Notification Protocols
    • The Acquisition of Imagery
    • The Analysis of Imagery
    • The Production of Imagery
    • Quality Control
table of contents cont d
Table of Contents (Cont’d)
  • Storage and Dissemination of Data
    • Website Control and File Management
    • The Daily Report
  • Recent Event Supports and Examples
introduction
Introduction
  • OSEI Purpose
    • To produce and analyze remotely sensed imagery, in near real-time, from satellite sensors, for the identification and monitoring of short-term natural and anthropogenic hazards.
  • Imagery available in NOAA: NOAA-AVHRR, GOES, GMS, DMSP-SSM/I, TOMS-EP, METEOSAT, RADARSAT SAR, and SeaWiFS
  • Support Policies
    • Operational support
    • All locations in the world
    • Near real-time and quick turn around after an event
introduction cont d
Introduction (Cont’d)
  • Defining a Natural Hazard/Significant Event
    • “Significant” depends upon one’s point of view.
    • “Significant Events” are defined not just in context with situations which produce spectacular remotely-sensed images, but also with those that have a severe impact to lives and property.
    • Typical Significant Events: Fires, Smoke, Volcanic Eruptions and Ash Plumes, Tropical Cyclones, Floods, Oil Spills, Snow Cover or Ice, Dust Storms, Tornado Outbreaks, Storms, and Red Tides.
the process
The Process
  • Identify Significant Events
  • Define Significance and Classify the “Significance Threshold (ST)” from ST0 (lowest) to ST3 (highest).
  • Notify the OSEI Team Members
  • Acquire, Analyze and Produce Imagery
  • Quality Control
  • Store, Disseminate and Archive Data
  • Daily Operational Significant Event Support Report
recent event supports and examples
Recent Event Supports and Examples
  • Fires: Southeast Asia, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Central America, Guyana, Indonesia, Mexico, the Philippines, and the United States
  • Dust: Africa, East Asia, MidEast and the Pacific Ocean
  • Floods: Afghanistan, Argentina, Kenya, Pakistan, Peru, Somalia, and the United States
  • Snow Cover or Ice: The Antarctic, and the Arctic, Canada, and the United States
recent event supports and examples cont d
Recent Event Supports and Examples (Cont’d)
  • Storms, Tornado, or Tropical Cyclones: Canada, Europe, Japan, India, Russia and Georgia, the Philippines, the United States, etc.
  • Smoke: SE Asia, Japan, South America, Italy, and the United States
  • Volcanic Eruptions: Hawaii, Soufriere Hills, Kamchatka Peninsula (near Bering Sea), Montserrat, Pavlof, and El Arenal (in Costa Rica)
  • Oil Spills: Coastal oceans off Pakistan, Japan, and Paraguay
  • Red Tides: Hong Kong
future plans
Future Plans
  • Implement 7X24 support.
  • Implement “list serve” capability.
  • Develop automate data acquisition/event identification/classification system - Hazard Mapping System (HMS).
  • Develop a simple and more friendly image processing software.
discussion and conclusion
Discussion and Conclusion
  • All imagery supports are emphasized on the operational objective, rather than on the scientific purpose.
  • Since the turn-around time of imagery support for an event is about three hours, a detailed study of the imagery is impossible. Therefore, a bias in the event location and reality is inevitable.
discussion and conclusion cont d
Discussion and Conclusion (Cont’d)
  • Ground truth data are usually not available when the imagery is issued and disseminated to the customer.
  • The imagery support, however, has still been proved to be a very useful, economical, and effective method for identifying and monitoring larger-scaled events.