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MOTIVATION. Processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. Content Theories of Motivation Contemporary Theories of Motivation. I) Hierarchy of Needs Theory. Self-Actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological.

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  • Processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.

  • Content Theories of Motivation

  • Contemporary Theories of Motivation

I hierarchy of needs theory
I) Hierarchy of Needs Theory






Hierarchy of needs
Hierarchy of Needs

  • Physiological: Hunger, thirst, bodily needs

  • Safety: Security & protection from physical and emotional harm

  • Social: Affection, belongingness, acceptance, friendship

  • Esteem: Internal (self-respect, autonomy, achievement) & External (status, recognition, attention)

  • Self-Actualization: Growth, achieving one’s potential, self-fulfillment

Hierarchy of needs1
Hierarchy of Needs

  • As each of these needs becomes satisfied, next need becomes dominant

  • Satisfied need no longer motivates

  • Higher (satisfied internally) versus lower (satisfied externally) order needs

Ii theory x and theory y
II) Theory X and Theory Y

  • After viewing the way in which managers dealt with employees

  • Under Theory X:

    • People inherently dislike work, whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it.

    • They must be coerced, controlled or threatened with punishment to achieve goals

    • They will avoid responsibilities & seek formal direction whenever possible

    • Place security above all other factors

Under theory y
Under Theory Y

  • People can view work as natural as rest or play

  • They will exercise self-direction & self-control if they are committed to objectives

  • They can learn to accept responsibility

  • Ability to make innovative decisions is widely dispersed throughout the population

Theory x versus theory y
Theory X versus Theory Y

  • Theory X: Lower needs dominate individuals

  • Theory Y: Higher order needs

  • Theory Y assumptions are more valid than Theory X.

  • Participative decision-making, responsible & challenging jobs, good group relations

Iii two factor theory
III) Two-Factor Theory

  • One’s attitude toward work can determine success or failure => “What do people want from their jobs?”; Situations in which employees felt exceptionally good or bad about their jobs.

  • Opposite of “satisfaction” = “no satisfaction”

  • Opposite of “dissatisfaction” = “no dissatisfaction”

Hygiene factors
Hygiene Factors

  • Company policy & administration

  • Supervision

  • Relationship with supervisor

  • Work conditions

  • Salary

  • Relationship with peers

  • Personal life

  • Relationship with subordinates

  • Status

  • Security


  • Achievement

  • Recognition

  • Work itself

  • Responsibility

  • Advancement

  • Growth

Contemporary theories i mcclelland s theory of needs
Contemporary Theories: I)McClelland’s Theory of Needs

  • Need for achievement: (nAch)

    • Seek situations attaining personal responsibility for finding solutions to problems

    • Receive feedback on their performance

    • Not gamblers, dislike succeeding by chance

    • Interested in how well they do personally

    • Prefer tasks of intermediate difficulty

    • Perform best when they estimate that they have a 50-50 chance of success

      =>Run own business, manage self-contained unit

Mcclelland s theory of needs
McClelland’s Theory of Needs

  • Need for power: (nPow)

    • Desire to have impact, to be influential & to control others

    • Prefer to be placed into competitive & status-oriented situations

    • To be more concerned with prestige

Mcclelland s theory of needs1
McClelland’s Theory of Needs

  • Need for affiliation: (nAff)

    • Motive strive for friendship

    • Prefer cooperative situations rather than competitive ones

    • Desire relationships that involve a high degree of mutual understanding

Ii cognitive evaluation theory
II) Cognitive Evaluation Theory

  • Introduction of extrinsic rewards (pay etc.) for work effort that was previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease overall motivation.

  • Individual experiences a loss of control over his/her own behavior => previous intrinsic motivation decreases.

  • Verbal rewards versus tangible rewards

Iii goal setting theory
III) Goal-Setting Theory

  • Specificity of the goal acts as an internal stimulus

  • If factors (acceptance of goals) are constant => more difficult the goal, the higher level of performance (direct attention to the task, energize us, persistence, discover strategies)

  • Self-generated feedback (monitoring own process): more powerful

  • Goal commitment, task characteristics & national culture influence goal-performance relationship.

Iv management by objectives
IV) Management by Objectives

  • Setting goals that are tangible, verifiable & measurable

  • Individual => Departmental => Divisional => Overall organizational

  • Four ingredients are common:

    • Goal specificity

    • Participation in decision-making

    • Explicit time period

    • Performance period

V self efficacy social learning theory
V)Self-Efficacy (Social Learning) Theory

  • An individual’s belief that he/she is capable of performing a task

  • How to develop self-efficacy?

    • Enactive mastery: gaining experience with the task

    • Vicarious modeling: seeing someone else doing the task

    • Verbal persuasion: someone convincing that you have the skills to have success

      But intelligence & personality are absent!

Vi equity theory
VI) Equity Theory

  • Comparing inputs (effort, experience, education, competence) and outcomes (raises, grading, recognition) to those of others

    O/IA < O/IB => Inequity of under rewarded

    O/IA = O/IB => Equity

    O/IA > O/IB => Inequity of over rewarded

    O/IA: Person (you)

    O/IB : Relevant others

When perceived inequity
When perceived inequity

  • Change inputs (don’t exert as much effort)

  • Change outcomes (lower quality)

  • Distort perceptions of self (I work harder than everyone else)

  • Distort perceptions of others

  • Choose a different referent

  • Leave the field

Vii expectancy theory
VII) Expectancy Theory

  • Theory focuses on these relationships:

    • Effort - performance

    • Performance - reward

    • Rewards – personal goals

  • People will be motivated to exert a high level of effort when they believe that:

    • Effort will lead to a good performance appraisal

    • A good appraisal will lead to rewards

    • Rewards will satisfy the personal goals