March 24, 2013. Take a few minutes to study for test. After test…you will do vocab for WWI. Use American Republic book..starts on page 448. Turn this in when finished. Introduction. Imperialism Political Economic Social life
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March 24, 2013 • Take a few minutes to study for test. • After test…you will do vocab for WWI. • Use American Republic book..startson page 448. • Turn this in when finished.
Introduction • Imperialism • Political • Economic • Social life End of the 1800s-European countries and U.S. controlled nearly the entire world 1800-1914-Age of Imperialism
Introduction cont… • Imperialism of 1800s: three key factors • Nationalism • Industrial Rev. • Religious fervor and feelings of racial and cultural superiority
Political Rivalries • Quest for colonies seemed to have no limits. • Slow communication between Europe and remote colonies. • Colonial governors and generals take matters into their own hands.
Political Rivalries cont… • Military officials used armies to expand the colony’s borders. • European troops facing battlefields in Africa and Asia.
Desire for New Markets • Factories in Europe and U.S. • Consumed tons of raw materials • Spurred growth of European and American industries and financial markets. • Colonies provide new markets.
Seeking New Opportunities • Great Britain, France, and Germany needed their own citizens to run newly acquired territories. • 1800s-European leaders encourage citizens to move to far-off colonies. • Many emigrate to Algeria, Australia, and New Zealand
Seeking New Opportunities • British gov’t acquire land in Africa, Asia, and the Pacific. • “The sun never sets on the British Empire” • Emigration was a chance to strike it rich.
Seeking New Opportunities cont… • Cecil Rhodes-British adventurer who made a fortune from gold and diamond mining in southern Africa. • Rhodes found colony Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe).
“Civilizing” Mission • Colonial expansion • Desire to spread Western technology • Religion • Customs • Traditions Catholic and protestant missionaries spread Christianity.
“Civilizing” Mission • People of Africa and Asia were told to: • Reject old religions • Convert to Christianity in order to become more “civilized.” Social Darwinism-survival of the “fittest” Believed White Europeans were the “fittest” people in the Western world.
“Civilizing” Mission cont… • 1899-Rudyard Kipling-British Writer • Famous poem “The White Man’s Burden.”
Take up the White Man's burden--Send forth the best ye breed--Go bind your sons to exileTo serve your captives' need;To wait in heavy harness,On fluttered folk and wild--Your new-caught, sullen peoples,Half-devil and half-child.
Forms of Imperialism • Imperial nations gained new lands through: • Treaties • Purchases • Military conquest
Forms of Imperialism • Forms of territorial control: • Colony • Protectorate • Sphere of influence Each Imperial nation exercised its power differently.
March 18, 2014 • Bell work: Imperialism in Africa map. • Read the reading on Africa and then color your map according to your map key. • Use map on page 486 • You will turn this in when finished…you have 15 minutes!
Introduction • Until 1800s, Europeans knew little of Africa. • David Livingstone-Scottish doctor and missionary. • Went to Africa in 1840 • Most famous explorer of Africa’s Abundant resources 1880-1914-European countries compete for land in Africa.
Introduction cont… • 1885- 14 nations meet in Berlin • Agreed to partition • King Leopold II of Belgium • 1914-European nations controlled 90% of the continent.
North Africa • The Sahara-world’s largest desert. • North Africans live North of Sahara along the Med. coast 1800s-Muslim Arabs (under authority of Ottoman ruler in Istanbul) governed large territories west of Egypt.
The French in North Africa • 1830-King Charles X orders invasion of Algiers. • Wants to colonize country • French troops-resistance from Algerians. • Abd al-Qadir-Algerian leader • French: • Conquered Algiers • Seized Tunis-1881 • Secured special rights in Morocco-1904
Britain and Egypt • 1800s-Egypt independent • Muhammad Ali-governor • 1859-Ferdinand de Lesseps • Suez Canal-joined the Med. Sea and Red Seas. • Shortcut between Europe and Asia
Britain and Egypt cont… • 1875-Egypt in debt • Sells canal shares to G.B. • G.B. gains control of canal. 1882-British put down a revolt -led by Ahmed Arabi -Egypt becomes a British protectorate
Britain and Egypt • Sudan-South of Egypt • Mahdi-Sudanese leader-challenged British expansion • 1898-British defeat Sudanese army at the Battle of Omdurman
Italy Seized Libya • Italy eager to establish African empire. • 1911-Italy declared war on the Ottoman Empire, which ruled Tripoli • Italy defeats the Turks • Renames Tripoli Libya. • Libya last country in N.A. conquered by European nations.
West, Central, and East Africa • 1800s-West, Central, and East Africa consisted of many territories. • History and traditions • Late 1800s-Europeans took most of these lands from the African people.
West Africa • Europeans and the slave trade from West Africa. • Early 1800s-many Western nations: • End to slave trade • Abolished slavery Arab and African traders -Sent people from Central and East Africa to perform slave labor in Middle East and Asia.
West Africa cont.. • 1870s-European nations push inland to control slave trade and to expand holdings. • 1800s-discovery of quinine-fights malaria. • Steamships aid European exploration • 1890s-West African rulers: SamoryToure and Behanzin lead armies against French.
West Africa Cont… • Gold Coast-Ashanti queen YaaAsantewaa • Defeated by European forces. • 1900-Liberia remains independent • Est. in 1822 by free A.A. • Liberia becomes a republic-1847 • Ties to the U.S.-off limits to Europe
Central and East Africa • 1877-Henry M. Stanley-Congo river • Belgium’s King Leopold II-Claimed Congo region. • Leopold strips Congo of people and resources. • 1908-gives plantation to Belgian gov’t for a loan. • Region became known as Belgian Congo
Central and East Africa cont… • Belgians claiming Congo Basin • British, Germans, and Italians claiming East Africa. • Ethiopia-Only country in East Africa to remain independent. • Horn of Africa
Central and East Africa cont… • 1800s-Italy tries to conquer Ethiopia • Emperor Menelik II-opponent • 1896-Italians attack Ethiopia • Battle of Adowa-Menelik crushed forces. • Ethiopia and Liberia-only two African nations to escape domination.
Southern Africa • 1652-Dutch settlers-Southern Africa • Est. port of Cape Town • Afrikaners-name of settlers • Conquered all lands around port • Became known as Cape Colony Before Suez canal-quickest route to Asia from Europe: around Cape of Good Hope-at the southern tip of Africa
Southern Africa cont… • 1800s-British seized Cape colony during Napoleonic wars. • 1830s-10,000 Afrikaners-Boers-decide to leave Cape Colony rather than live under British rule. • Great Trek-Afrikaners migrate • Est. two independent republics • Transvaal and Orange Free State
Southern Africa cont… • Afrikaners fight with Zulu for control of land. • 1800s-King Shaka-Zulu conquers large empire in southern Africa • 1879-British become involved in battles with the Zulu.
Southern Africa cont.. • King Cetywayo-Zulu defeat British forces. • British eventually destroy Zulu empire • Conflict arose between British and Boers over gold and diamonds. • British wanted all of South Africa under their rule.
Southern Africa cont… • 1899-Anglo-Boer War-British win 3 yrs. Later. • 1910-G.B. united Transvaal, Orange Free State, Cape Colony, and Natal into the Union of South Africa.
Southern Africa cont… • Racial equality becomes an issue in South Africa. • 1912-Black South Africans founded the South African Native National Congress (SANNC). • Supported black rights in South Africa • 1923-SANNC becomes African Nat’l Congress.
Effects of Imperialism • Centered mainly on economic and social life. • Imperialists profited from colonies by: • Digging mines • Starting plantations • Building factories and ports. Europeans set up schools/taught Africans that European ways were the best.
Effects of Imperialism • African traditions decline • 1900s-Western-educated elite emerged in African colonies. • Africans condemn imperalism • 20th century-Africans win political independence from European rule.
March 19, 2014 • Bell Work: Do map Imperialism in Asia…map on page 490. • Color map according to your key. • Turn this in when finished…you have 15 minutes!
Introduction • Marco Polo-Italian explorer • 1298-wrote Description of the World. • Zipangu (Japan)-East Asian island with huge supply of gold. • Zipangu inspired generation of Europeans.
The British in India • 1500s-European trade with Asia opened up. • 1600-East India Company (English Traders). • Built trading posts and forts in India