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March 24, 2013. Take a few minutes to study for test. After test…you will do vocab for WWI. Use American Republic book..starts on page 448. Turn this in when finished. Introduction. Imperialism Political Economic Social life

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march 24 2013
March 24, 2013
  • Take a few minutes to study for test.
  • After test…you will do vocab for WWI.
  • Use American Republic book..startson page 448.
  • Turn this in when finished.
introduction
Introduction
  • Imperialism
    • Political
    • Economic
    • Social life

End of the 1800s-European countries and U.S. controlled nearly the entire world

1800-1914-Age of Imperialism

introduction cont
Introduction cont…
  • Imperialism of 1800s: three key factors
    • Nationalism
    • Industrial Rev.
    • Religious fervor and feelings of racial and cultural superiority
political rivalries
Political Rivalries
  • Quest for colonies seemed to have no limits.
  • Slow communication between Europe and remote colonies.
    • Colonial governors and generals take matters into their own hands.
political rivalries cont
Political Rivalries cont…
  • Military officials used armies to expand the colony’s borders.
  • European troops facing battlefields in Africa and Asia.
desire for new markets
Desire for New Markets
  • Factories in Europe and U.S.
    • Consumed tons of raw materials
    • Spurred growth of European and American industries and financial markets.
    • Colonies provide new markets.
seeking new opportunities
Seeking New Opportunities
  • Great Britain, France, and Germany needed their own citizens to run newly acquired territories.
  • 1800s-European leaders encourage citizens to move to far-off colonies.
  • Many emigrate to Algeria, Australia, and New Zealand
seeking new opportunities1
Seeking New Opportunities
  • British gov’t acquire land in Africa, Asia, and the Pacific.
  • “The sun never sets on the British Empire”
  • Emigration was a chance to strike it rich.
seeking new opportunities cont
Seeking New Opportunities cont…
  • Cecil Rhodes-British adventurer who made a fortune from gold and diamond mining in southern Africa.
  • Rhodes found colony Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe).
civilizing mission
“Civilizing” Mission
  • Colonial expansion
    • Desire to spread Western technology
    • Religion
    • Customs
    • Traditions

Catholic and protestant missionaries spread Christianity.

civilizing mission1
“Civilizing” Mission
  • People of Africa and Asia were told to:
    • Reject old religions
    • Convert to Christianity in order to become more “civilized.”

Social Darwinism-survival of the “fittest”

Believed White Europeans were the “fittest” people in the Western world.

civilizing mission cont
“Civilizing” Mission cont…
  • 1899-Rudyard Kipling-British Writer
    • Famous poem “The White Man’s Burden.”
slide17

Take up the White Man's burden--Send forth the best ye breed--Go bind your sons to exileTo serve your captives' need;To wait in heavy harness,On fluttered folk and wild--Your new-caught, sullen peoples,Half-devil and half-child.

forms of imperialism
Forms of Imperialism
  • Imperial nations gained new lands through:
    • Treaties
    • Purchases
    • Military conquest
forms of imperialism1
Forms of Imperialism
  • Forms of territorial control:
    • Colony
    • Protectorate
    • Sphere of influence

Each Imperial nation exercised its power differently.

march 18 2014
March 18, 2014
  • Bell work: Imperialism in Africa map.
  • Read the reading on Africa and then color your map according to your map key.
  • Use map on page 486
  • You will turn this in when finished…you have 15 minutes!
introduction1
Introduction
  • Until 1800s, Europeans knew little of Africa.
  • David Livingstone-Scottish doctor and missionary.
    • Went to Africa in 1840
    • Most famous explorer of Africa’s

Abundant resources

1880-1914-European countries compete for land in Africa.

introduction cont1
Introduction cont…
  • 1885- 14 nations meet in Berlin
  • Agreed to partition
  • King Leopold II of Belgium
  • 1914-European nations controlled 90% of the continent.
north africa
North Africa
  • The Sahara-world’s largest desert.
  • North Africans live North of Sahara along the Med. coast

1800s-Muslim Arabs (under authority of Ottoman ruler in Istanbul) governed large territories west of Egypt.

the french in north africa
The French in North Africa
  • 1830-King Charles X orders invasion of Algiers.
  • Wants to colonize country
  • French troops-resistance from Algerians.
  • Abd al-Qadir-Algerian leader
  • French:
    • Conquered Algiers
    • Seized Tunis-1881
    • Secured special rights in Morocco-1904
britain and egypt
Britain and Egypt
  • 1800s-Egypt independent
  • Muhammad Ali-governor
  • 1859-Ferdinand de Lesseps
    • Suez Canal-joined the Med. Sea and Red Seas.
    • Shortcut between Europe and Asia
britain and egypt cont
Britain and Egypt cont…
  • 1875-Egypt in debt
    • Sells canal shares to G.B.
    • G.B. gains control of canal.

1882-British put down a revolt

-led by Ahmed Arabi

-Egypt becomes a British protectorate

britain and egypt1
Britain and Egypt
  • Sudan-South of Egypt
  • Mahdi-Sudanese leader-challenged British expansion
  • 1898-British defeat Sudanese army at the Battle of Omdurman
italy seized libya
Italy Seized Libya
  • Italy eager to establish African empire.
  • 1911-Italy declared war on the Ottoman Empire, which ruled Tripoli
  • Italy defeats the Turks
  • Renames Tripoli Libya.
  • Libya last country in N.A. conquered by European nations.
west central and east africa
West, Central, and East Africa
  • 1800s-West, Central, and East Africa consisted of many territories.
  • History and traditions
  • Late 1800s-Europeans took most of these lands from the African people.
west africa
West Africa
  • Europeans and the slave trade from West Africa.
  • Early 1800s-many Western nations:
    • End to slave trade
    • Abolished slavery

Arab and African traders

-Sent people from Central and East Africa to perform slave labor in Middle East and Asia.

west africa cont
West Africa cont..
  • 1870s-European nations push inland to control slave trade and to expand holdings.
  • 1800s-discovery of quinine-fights malaria.
  • Steamships aid European exploration
  • 1890s-West African rulers: SamoryToure and Behanzin lead armies against French.
west africa cont1
West Africa Cont…
  • Gold Coast-Ashanti queen YaaAsantewaa
  • Defeated by European forces.
  • 1900-Liberia remains independent
  • Est. in 1822 by free A.A.
    • Liberia becomes a republic-1847
    • Ties to the U.S.-off limits to Europe
central and east africa
Central and East Africa
  • 1877-Henry M. Stanley-Congo river
  • Belgium’s King Leopold II-Claimed Congo region.
  • Leopold strips Congo of people and resources.
  • 1908-gives plantation to Belgian gov’t for a loan.
  • Region became known as Belgian Congo
central and east africa cont
Central and East Africa cont…
  • Belgians claiming Congo Basin
  • British, Germans, and Italians claiming East Africa.
  • Ethiopia-Only country in East Africa to remain independent.
    • Horn of Africa
central and east africa cont1
Central and East Africa cont…
  • 1800s-Italy tries to conquer Ethiopia
  • Emperor Menelik II-opponent
  • 1896-Italians attack Ethiopia
  • Battle of Adowa-Menelik crushed forces.
  • Ethiopia and Liberia-only two African nations to escape domination.
southern africa
Southern Africa
  • 1652-Dutch settlers-Southern Africa
  • Est. port of Cape Town
  • Afrikaners-name of settlers
    • Conquered all lands around port
    • Became known as Cape Colony

Before Suez canal-quickest route to Asia from Europe:

around Cape of Good Hope-at the southern tip of Africa

southern africa cont
Southern Africa cont…
  • 1800s-British seized Cape colony during Napoleonic wars.
  • 1830s-10,000 Afrikaners-Boers-decide to leave Cape Colony rather than live under British rule.
  • Great Trek-Afrikaners migrate
    • Est. two independent republics
    • Transvaal and Orange Free State
southern africa cont1
Southern Africa cont…
  • Afrikaners fight with Zulu for control of land.
  • 1800s-King Shaka-Zulu conquers large empire in southern Africa
  • 1879-British become involved in battles with the Zulu.
southern africa cont2
Southern Africa cont..
  • King Cetywayo-Zulu defeat British forces.
  • British eventually destroy Zulu empire
  • Conflict arose between British and Boers over gold and diamonds.
  • British wanted all of South Africa under their rule.
southern africa cont3
Southern Africa cont…
  • 1899-Anglo-Boer War-British win 3 yrs. Later.
  • 1910-G.B. united Transvaal, Orange Free State, Cape Colony, and Natal into the Union of South Africa.
southern africa cont4
Southern Africa cont…
  • Racial equality becomes an issue in South Africa.
  • 1912-Black South Africans founded the South African Native National Congress (SANNC).
    • Supported black rights in South Africa
    • 1923-SANNC becomes African Nat’l Congress.
effects of imperialism
Effects of Imperialism
  • Centered mainly on economic and social life.
  • Imperialists profited from colonies by:
    • Digging mines
    • Starting plantations
    • Building factories and ports.

Europeans set up schools/taught Africans that European ways were the best.

effects of imperialism1
Effects of Imperialism
  • African traditions decline
  • 1900s-Western-educated elite emerged in African colonies.
  • Africans condemn imperalism
  • 20th century-Africans win political independence from European rule.
march 19 2014
March 19, 2014
  • Bell Work: Do map Imperialism in Asia…map on page 490.
  • Color map according to your key.
  • Turn this in when finished…you have 15 minutes!
introduction2
Introduction
  • Marco Polo-Italian explorer
  • 1298-wrote Description of the World.
  • Zipangu (Japan)-East Asian island with huge supply of gold.
  • Zipangu inspired generation of Europeans.
the british in india
The British in India
  • 1500s-European trade with Asia opened up.
  • 1600-East India Company (English Traders).
    • Built trading posts and forts in India
the british in india cont
The British in India cont…
  • French East India Company-challenged British.
  • 1757-Robert Clive-British East India Co. Agent.
    • Used British army and Indian troops to defeat French
    • Battle of Plassey
    • Next 100 years, British expand territory
the sepoy rebellion
The Sepoy Rebellion
  • 1857-East India Co. controlled most of India
  • Sepoys-Indian soldiers, rebelled against British commanders.
  • Sepoy resentment grew.
the sepoy rebellion cont
The Sepoy Rebellion cont..
  • Sepoy rebellion spread.
  • Massacre of British men, women,and children.
  • Within a year-British put down uprising.
  • Brits get revenge
  • 1858-Parliament ends East India Co.
  • Sent a viceroy to rule as monarch’s rep.
indian nationalism
Indian Nationalism
  • British gov’t spend vast amounts of money on India’s economic development.
    • Built paved roads
    • Railway system
    • Telegraph lines
    • Dug irrigation canals
    • Est. schools and universities
indian nationalism cont
Indian Nationalism cont…
  • British colonial officials discriminate against Indians.
  • Forced Indian to change ways.
  • 1885-Indian Nat’l Congress
  • Congress used peaceful protest (at first).
  • A long struggle for independence
china faces the west
China Faces the West
  • Europeans develop trade with China
  • 1500s-Chinese highly advanced.
  • Chinese-little interest in European products.
china faces the west cont
China Faces the West cont…
  • Next 300 years-limited trade between China and Europe.
  • China under Qing Dynasty
  • China’s political, economic, and military position weakened.
  • Qing emperors ruled 1644-1912.
the unequal treaties
The Unequal Treaties
  • Early 1800s-British merchants break barriers and earn huge profits.
  • Tried to avoid paying cash for Chinese products (tea, silk, and porcelain).
  • Smuggled drug into China-opium.
  • 1839-Chinese troops tried to stop smuggling.
  • Brits resist/war breaks out.
the unequal treaties cont
The Unequal Treaties cont…
  • 1842-Opium War/Brits win.
  • 1842-Treaty of Nanking- “unequal treaties”
  • China forced to yield many rights to Western powers.
  • 1890s-European powers and Japan claim large sections of land in China.
  • Spheres of Influence-exclusive trading rights.
the unequal treaties cont1
The Unequal Treaties cont…
  • Imperialist scramble
  • U.S.-Open Door Policy-all nations trade with China.
  • 1899-All other powers reluctantly agreed to policy.
chinese responses
Chinese Responses
  • China decides to modernize
  • Late 1800s- began “self-strengthening”-started importing Western technology and educational methods.
  • Lack of gov’t support.
  • 1894-Chinese weakness exposed in war against Japan.
  • Japan wins/China loses territory.
chinese responses cont
Chinese Responses cont…
  • Young Emperor-Guang Xu-supports reformers.
  • Emperor arrested and reforms stop.
  • Ci Xi-emperors mother returns to power.
  • 1890s-anti-foreign feelings in China
  • Boxers-secret society
    • Dedicated to removing diplomats
    • Entrepreneurs
    • Missionaries and other foreigners from the country
chinese responses cont1
Chinese Responses cont…
  • 1900-Boxers attack foreigners and Chines Christians.
  • Boxers besiege foreign communities in Beijing (Chinese capital).
  • Western powers and Japan send multinational force to end uprising.
march 20 2014
March 20, 2014
  • Bell work: American Imperialism map.
  • Use book Pages A-2-A-4 to label map.
  • Chapter 16 section 4
the revolution of 1911
The Revolution of 1911
  • After uprising, Ci Xi struggled to hold on to power.
  • Many Chinese want modern republic to replace Qing dynasty.
  • Only way-revolution
  • Sun Yat-sen(revolutionary)-wanted China to regain former power.
the revolution of 1911 cont
The Revolution of 1911 cont…
  • 1905-United League (Guomindang, or Nationalist Party).
  • Goal to modernize China- “Three Principles of the People.”
    • Nationalism (freedom from foreign control)
    • Democracy (rep. gov’t)
    • Livelihood (economic well-being for all Chinese)
the revolution of 19111
The Revolution of 1911
  • Revolution strengthened in 1908.
  • Ci Xi died/two year old Prince Pu Yi becomes emperor.
  • 3 yrs late-revolution sweeps across China.
  • Jan. 1912- Sun Yat-sen- 1st President of Chinese republic.
modernization of japan
Modernization of Japan
  • 1500s- European traders 1st come to the Island of Japan.
  • Japanese uninterested in European products.
  • Did not trade with outside world until 1853.
  • Four American warships/Commodore Matthew C. Perry.
  • Bay at Edo (Tokyo)
modernization of japan cont
Modernization of Japan cont…
  • Perry wanted Japan to begin trading with U.S.
  • 1854-Japan signs treaty with U.S.
the meiji leaders
The Meiji Leaders
  • In 1st five years- shogun (military commander who ruled Japan) signed treaties with:
    • Britain
    • France
    • Holland
    • Russia
    • U.S.
the meiji leaders cont
The Meiji Leaders cont..
  • 1868-shogun overthrown
  • Mutsuhito-new emperor.
  • Meiji- “Enlightened” emperor.
  • New rulers called Meiji leaders.
    • brought parliamentary gov’t
    • Strengthened military
    • Transformed nation into industrial society
industrialization
Industrialization
  • 1870s-Japan industrializes economy by:
    • Revising tax structure to raise money for investment.

New technology and cheap labor/low-priced goods.

1914-leading industrial nations.

japan as a world power
Japan as a World Power
  • 1890s-Japan more modern
  • Need more natural resources/est. overseas empire.
  • 1894-Korea revolt against Chinese rulers.
  • Japan intervenes.
  • Sino-Japanese War-Japs win.
japan as a world power cont
Japan as a World Power cont…
  • Japan gained partial control of Korea’s trade.
  • Thousands of Japs settle in Korea
  • Russia-interests in Korea
  • 1904-Japanese Navy/surprise attack on Russian naval base.
  • Port Arthur, Manchuria
japan as a world power cont1
Japan as a World Power cont…
  • Russo-Japanese War
  • Japanese victory
  • War ends in 1905
  • Russia signs treaty
    • Grants Japan control over Korea and other nearby areas.
japan as a world power cont2
Japan as a World Power cont…
  • Japans victory inspired other non-Western nations.
  • 1910-Korea annexed as a colony
  • Japan expands for the next 35 years.
southeast asia
Southeast Asia
  • Southeast Asia: Two distinct geographic areas:
    • Archipelagos (groups of islands): the East Indies and Philippines.
    • North and west(mainland Southeast Asia) includes all territories that occupy Indochinese and Malay Peninsulas.
    • 1500s-Imperialist powers conquered.
the islands of southeast asia
The Islands of Southeast Asia
  • 1800s-Dutch control East Indies
  • Spain controlled Philippines
  • Dutch East Indies (Indonesia)/natural resources.
  • Culture system-forced labor
  • Dutch discouraged westernization
the islands of southeast asia cont
The Islands of Southeast Asia cont…
  • Diponegoro-native prince from East Indian island of Java.
  • 1825-starts a revolt against Dutch
  • Last 10 years/ends in failure
  • Spanish rule of Philippines resemble the Dutch
  • 1800s-Filipinos’ resentments grows.
  • 1896-revolution
the islands of southeast asia cont1
The Islands of Southeast Asia cont…
  • 1898-U.S. declares war on Spain
  • U.S. promised to free Philippines if rebels would help fight against Spanish.
  • After SPAM War-U.S broke promise/ruled Philippines as a colony
  • Emilio Aguinaldo-Filipino leader-rose up against American rule.
  • U.S defeats two years later.
mainland southeast asia
Mainland Southeast Asia
  • G.B. and France struggle for domination of mainland of Southeast Asia.
  • 1820s-British take control of Burma and Malaya
  • French slowly conquering Indochina.
  • 1880s-complete control of Indochina.
mainland southeast asia cont
Mainland Southeast Asia cont…
  • Kingdom of Siam-territory squeezed between British and French.
  • Siam remains independent.
  • European rivalries want control of resources.
  • Bring disturbance to mainland Southeast Asia.
chapter 18 section 4
Chapter 18 Section 4
  • Imperialism in the Americas
section 4 2

Section 4 Lecture Notes

Section 4-2

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Introduction

  • The United States was determined to useThe Monroe Doctrine to block the spread of European imperialism in neighboring Latin America.
  • In doing so, the United States was also promoting its own brand of imperialism that involved the penetration of new economic markets and the acquisition of overseas territories.

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Section 4 Lecture Notes

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TheMonroe Doctrine

  • Even before the independence of all the Latin American countries was well established, Spain had sought the support of other European powers in reconquering its former colonies. 
  • Both the United States and Great Britain opposed Spain’s plan to reconquer its former colonies.

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The Monroe Doctrine (cont.)

  • Great Britain suggested to the United States that a joint warning be issued to the various European powers. 
  • However, in 1823 PresidentJames Monroe and Secretary of StateJohn Quincy Adams decided to act alone.

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Section 4 Lecture Notes

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TheMonroe Doctrine (cont.)

  • The Monroe Doctrine, as the warning was later called, contained two major points: 
  • “The American continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assured and maintain, are hence forth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers. 
  • We should consider anyattempt on their part to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety.”

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u s and cuba economic relations
U.S. and Cuba: Economic Relations
  • 1894: 90% of Cuba’s exports go to U.S.
  • Raw sugar sold to U.S. refiners
  • 90 miles from FL keys
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TheSpanish-American War

  • Cubaand the neighboring island ofPuerto Ricowere still Spanish colonies in the late 1800s. 
  • In 1895José Martí, a writer and politicalactivist,led Cubans in a revolution against Spanish rule.

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The Spanish-American War (cont.)

  • Martí was killedin a battle against the Spaniards, andSpanish troops rounded upthousands ofCubans and sent them to prison camps where conditions were brutal.
  • Disease and starvation soonclaimed more than 400,000 Cuban lives.

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the cuban rebellion
The Cuban Rebellion

Cubans longed for their colonial ruler Spain to leave

Spain smashed and defeated a Cuban rebellion forcing Jose Marti to flee to the U.S. to gather money, arms, and troops

In 1895, Marti returned to Cuba and led a revolt

Many people including Marti died. The rebels burned sugarcane fields hoping to get the Spaniards to leave

The Spaniards retaliated by herding Cubans into reconcentration camps to separate them from the rebels

Thousands died in the camps from starvation and disease

The Cuban struggle got the attention of U.S. businessmen who wanted to protect their investments and trade with the island

Others were afraid of rebellion so close to the U.S.

President Grover Cleveland opposed U.S. intervention

When William McKinley became President he too looked to keep the U.S. out of the war

spanish american war
Spanish-American War:
  • Cuban Revolution: rebels declared independence & launched a guerrilla war against Spanish authorities
  • US remained neutral
  • Spain sent General Valeriano (“Butcher”) Weyler to handle the Revolution
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Remember the Maine!

  • The struggle of the Cubans for freedom attracted much sympathy in the United States. 
  • In January 1898,PresidentWilliam McKinley ordered the battleship Maine to Havana, the capital ofCuba,to demonstrate growing American interest in Cuban affairs.

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Remember the Maine! (cont.)

  • A few weeks later, anexplosion rippedthrough the Mainewhile it was still anchored in Havana harbor, sinking theship andkilling 260 American sailors.
  • In April 1898, under pressure from all sides,McKinley asked Congress to declare war on Spain. 
  • The Spanish-American War lasted four monthsand ended with avictory for the United States.

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remember the maine
Remember The Maine

After rioting broke out in the Cuban Capital of Havana President McKinley sent the battleship Maine to protect American citizens and property

After three weeks the ship exploded and sunk in Havana Harbor killing about 260 officers and crew

American Newspapers blamed the Spanish and the slogan “Remember The Maine” became a rallying cry for revenge and war against Spain

When negotiations failed to easy American concerns Congress recognized Cuban independence

On April 25, 1898 Congress declared war on Spain

controversy over the maine
Controversy over the Maine
  • 266 American sailors killed
  • March 25th, a report was released which said that the Maine explosion was caused by submerged mine.
  • In reality, the explosion was caused by a spontaneous combustion fire in a coal bunker (an accident!).
slide107
War In Cuba: Havana

U.S. wanted to drive out Spanish

america wins the war an empire
Treaty of Paris

Signed on December 10, 1898;

Granted Cuban independence, but keep them under U.S. protection

Spain gives up the Philippines, Cuba, Guam, and Puerto Rico;

U.S. gives $20 million for the Philippines

America Wins the War & an Empire:
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American Territorial Gains

  • During the late 1800s, theUnited Statesmade many significant territorialgains.
  • In 1867 the United States purchasedAlaska from Russia. 
  • In 1898 it annexedHawaiishortly after American entrepreneurs on the islands hadoverthrown theHawaiian queenLiliuokalani.

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imperialism in the pacific
Imperialism in the Pacific
  • Secretary of State William H. Seward

believed the U.S. could build its empire in

Hawaii through trade.

  • In 1868, Seward acquired two more small

Pacific Islands of Midway as a stopping

off point for American ships going to China

  • The navy and merchant ships needed more

than just these small islands to secure the

Pacific.

  • Hawaii would be a great port that would

help secure the Pacific

  • Christian missionaries had already arrived

in Hawaii in the 1820’s.

  • A large sugar plantation business had been established by merchants who brought in workers from Japan and China to work the land.
  • Hawaiians led by Queen Liliuokalani tried to regain economic control from the Americans.
  • U.S. diplomat John Stevens arranged for marines to assist an uprising and secure the annexation of Hawaii to the U.S. the treaty was signed by President Benjamin Harrison
philippines
Discovered by Magellan (1521)

Major exports: Sugar, hemp, & tobacco

PHILIPPINES:
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American Territorial Gains (cont.)

  • As aresult of the Spanish-American War,the United States gainedthePhilippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico. 
  • Although independent, Cuba was under American protection. 
  • In 1917 theUnited States purchased the Virgin Islands–St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix–from Denmark.

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Section 4 Lecture Notes

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The Panama Canal

  • Victory in the Spanish-American War made the United States a world power. 
  • It becameimportant for the United States to be ableto move its fleet quickly between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. 
  • What wasneeded was a canal across the Isthmus of Panama, a narrow neck of land that linked Central America and South America.

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Section 4 Lecture Notes

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The Panama Canal (cont.)

  • In the 1880s the Frenchman Ferdinand de Lesseps, who had built the Suez Canal, tried–and failed–to build a canal in Panama. 
  • Thirteen years after the bankruptcy of de Lesseps’s company, United States PresidentTheodore Roosevelt received the backing of Congress to acquire the Panama canal rights and property.

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Section 4 Lecture Notes

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The Panama Canal (cont.)

  • In 1902, however,Panama was part of Colombia,whorefused to sign the treaty giving the United States the right to build. 
  • American agents encouragedthe people of Panama torevolt against the government of Colombia.
  • They did so on the night of November 3, 1903, and the rebellion was over within a day. 
  • The newRepublic of Panama quicklysigned a treaty granting the United States the land to build the Panama Canal.

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Section 4 Lecture Notes

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The Panama Canal (cont.)

  • Construction of thecanal began in 1904 and took more than 40,000 workers 10 years to complete. 
  • When the first ship finally steamed through the canal in August 1914, the canal was hailed as one of the world’s great engineering feats. 
  • Possession of the Panama Canal gave the United States even more of a stake in Latin America.
section 4 17

Section 4 Lecture Notes

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The Panama Canal (cont.)

  • In 1904President Theodore Roosevelt extended the Monroe Doctrine in what became known as the Roosevelt Corollary. 
  • Under this addition, the United States wouldactively intervene to force Latin American countries to honor their foreign debts.
  • Most Latin Americans viewed American actions as moves to turn their countries into “colonies” of the United States and to protect foreign businesses that were exploiting their resources.

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roosevelt corollary
Roosevelt Corollary:
  • Enforcing the Monroe Doctrine: the western hemisphere was closed to European colonization.
  • Pres. Roosevelt said the US would intervene in Latin American affairs when needed
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Section 4 Lecture Notes

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Mexico

  • During the 1830s,opposition tothe dictatorial rule ofGeneralAntonio López de Santa Anna–thedictatorial ruler of Mexico–grew in the Mexican state of Texas, where many Americans had settled. 
  • In 1835 the Americans and some Mexicans in Texas revolted and the next year set up an independent republic.

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Mexico (cont.)

  • In 1845,ignoring Mexican opposition,Texas joined the American republic as a state.
  • Conflict soon developed between Mexico and the United States, and Mexico lost the Mexican War. 
  • In theTreaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo(1848),nearly half of Mexico’s territory went to the United States.

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Reform and Conflict

  • After the Mexican War, Mexico entered an era of change known as La Reforma. 
  • In 1855 Mexican voters chose Benito Juárez, a lawyer of Native American background, as president. 
  • In 1863, when Mexico could not pay its foreign debts, French troops occupied Mexico City.
  • In 1864Mexican conservatives, supported by the French, named Austrian ArchdukeMaximilian emperor of Mexico.

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Reform and Conflict (cont.)

  • The French, under American pressure, withdrewtheir troops from Mexico, andJuárez returned to power.
  • Four years afterJuárez’s death in 1872,GeneralPorfirioDíaz seized power. 
  • Díaz strengthened the army and limited individual freedoms. 
  • While the rich prospered, most Mexicans remained poor farmers, working on large estates for low wages.

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The Mexican Revolution

  • Discontent with Díazeventuallyled to revolution.From 1910 to 1920, Mexico was engulfed by the first major social upheaval in modern Latin America. 
  • During this time, armies of farmers, workers, ranchers, and even soldaderas, or women soldiers, fought the authorities and each other throughout Mexico.

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The Mexican Revolution (cont.)

  • Therevolution began when Francisco Madero,a liberal reformer, and his supportersoverthrew Díaz in 1910. 
  • Once in power,Madero was murdered by one of his generals, Victoriano Huerta.
  • A year later,Huerta himself was toppled from power.

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The Mexican Revolution (cont.)

  • Three revolutionary leaders–Emiliano Zapata, Francisco “Pancho” Villa, and VenustianoCarranza–competed for power.
  • Zapata and his followers fought for the rights of impoverished farmers. Like Zapata, Villa proposed radical reforms.

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The Mexican Revolution (cont.)

  • The more conservativeCarranza,however, was able tobecome presidentin 1915with American support. 
  • Inretaliation, Villa crossed the border into New Mexico and killed 18 Americans.
  • United StatesPresident Woodrow Wilson then sent American troops into Mexico to capture Villa.

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wilson s moral diplomacy is challenged in mexico
Wilson’s Moral Diplomacy is Challenged in Mexico
  • Mexican Civil War broke out against the government of Porfirio Diaz a brutal dictator

The rebels were led by Francisco Madero who was then overthrown by Victoriano Huerta. Huerta’s government was brutal and not recognized by Wilson. Without U.S. support it was hoped it would collapse

Wilson sold arms to Huerta’s rival and Huerta’s troops arrested some American sailors. Wilson sent troops to the port of Veracruz, the show of force made Huerta flee

Pancho Villa a rebel continued fighting and attacked the U.S. and killed 16 Americans

The U.S. sent General Pershing to try and capture Villa in Mexico. They pursued him for a year before withdrawing. War was barely averted.

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The Mexican Revolution (cont.)

  • In 1917 Carranza reluctantly introduced a liberal constitution but was slow in carrying out reforms. 
  • In 1920Carranza himself was killed during a revolt that brought GeneralÁlvaro Obregón to power. 
  • As the revolutionary violence began to subside in the early1920s, relations between Mexico and the United States became less tense.

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