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Lifestyles in Malta 2007 A Survey Study. Judith Rocchiccioloi, PhD., RN Karen Jagiello, RN, MSN James Madison Univesity. CISAT/HHS. Health and Human Services Nursing Physician Assistants Communication Science Disorders Occupational Therapy Health Sciences Pre-Medical Science.

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lifestyles in malta 2007 a survey study

Lifestyles in Malta 2007A Survey Study

Judith Rocchiccioloi, PhD., RN

Karen Jagiello, RN, MSN

James Madison Univesity

cisat hhs
CISAT/HHS
  • Health and Human Services
    • Nursing
    • Physician Assistants
    • Communication Science Disorders
    • Occupational Therapy
    • Health Sciences
    • Pre-Medical Science
lifestyles survey 2007
Lifestyles Survey 2007
  • Instrumentation: Lifestyles Questionnaire adapted and revised from the CDC Lifestyles Health Promotion Website (www.cdc.us.gov) and further adapted from Lifestyles Survey 2006
  • Content Validity: Panel of 2 Nurses
lifestyles survey 20074
LifeStyles Survey 2007
  • Content Areas
    • Health Care Access (6 items)
    • Exercise (4 items)
    • Nutrition (5 items)
    • Diabetes (6 items)
    • Tobacco Use (2 items)
    • Alcohol Consumption (4 items)
    • Lifestyle Awareness (12 items)
      • Hypertension, Cholesterol
sampling
Sampling
  • Convenience Sample (n=471)
  • Surveys gathered from May 15th to June 1st 2007
methodology
Methodology
  • Data was gathered by student researchers at locations all over the island to include the Institute for Health, University of Malta, beaches, café’s, restaurants, on buses, at bus stops and tourist areas
  • Students approached potential sample, explained the study purpose, guaranteed confidentiality and asked for cooperation.
methodology7
Methodology
  • Informed Consent was explained and participants were told that their decision to participate implied informed consent.
  • Sample participants were given pencils and the survey and were asked to complete the survey. Student researchers stayed with participants and answered questions and provided clarification .
data analysis
Data Analysis

SPSS for the Social Sciences

Descriptive statistics, frequencies and correlations

health care access
Health Care Access
  • 56.1% of respondents reported having government health insurance
  • 38.6% reported not having government health insurance
  • 39.7% reported having private health insurance
  • 55% reported not having private health insurance
health care access11
Health Care Access
  • 27.6% of survey respondents answered they had only one personal health care provider
  • 48.2% of survey respondents replied they had more than one
health care access12
Health Care Access
  • When you are sick or need advice about your health, to which one of the following places do you usually go?
    • A doctor’s office 67.5%
    • A public health clinic or community health center 15.7%
    • A hospital outpatient department 2.3%
    • A hospital emergency room 4.5%
    • Some other kind of place 9.6%
health care access13
Health Care Access

Was there a time in the past 12 months when you needed medical care, but could not get it?

35.5% indicated at least some problem accessing healthcare during the past year

64.5% reported that they had no problems getting health care at least once during the past year

health care access14
Health Care Access
  • Of the 35.5% (n=167) of survey respondents answering that they had problems accessing health care
  • 12% cited cost
  • 35.9% cited too long of a wait in the waiting room
  • 19% reported the office wasn’t open when person could get there
  • 44.3% reported too long of a wait for an appointment
  • 16.8% cited transportation problems
tobacco use
Tobacco Use
  • On average, how many cigarettes do you smoke per day?
    • None 59.4%
    • Less than one pack 25.1%
    • One to two packs 3.6%
tobacco use16
Tobacco Use
  • During the past 12 months, have you stopped smoking for one day or longer because you were trying to quit smoking?
    • 1-3 times 16.6%
    • 4-5 times 3.6%
    • Over six times 3.6%
    • None 35.5%
alcohol use
Alcohol Use
  • A drink of alcohol is 1 can or bottle of beer, 1 glass of wine, 1 cocktail, or 1 shot of liquor. The percentage of respondents who reported having at least one drink per day during the previous week was 80%
alcohol use18
Alcohol Use
  • 27.8% of respondents reporting having 1 to 2 drinks per day on days when they drank
  • 30.4% of respondents reporting having 3 to 4 drinks per day on days when they drank
  • 25.9% of respondents reporting having 5 or more drinks per day on days when they drank
alcohol use19
Alcohol Use
  • Considering all types of alcoholic beverages, how many times during the past seven days did you have five or more drinks on one occasion?
  • 40.8% reported 0 times
  • 18.5% reported 1 times
  • 11.5% reported 2 times
  • 4.5% reported 3 times
alcohol use20
Alcohol Use
  • 9.7% of respondents reported driving at least once in the past thirty days after they had had too much to drink.
  • 10% of respondents reported not knowing whether they had driven at least once in the past thirty days after they had had too much to drink
exercise
Exercise
  • 32.5% of respondents stated that they believed exercise was very important.
  • 40.1% of respondents stated that they believed exercise was important.
  • 26.7 of respondents stated that they believed exercise was unimportant or neutral
exercise22
Exercise
  • 24.6% of respondents have been told by their doctors to exercise more
  • 39.9% of respondents reported not participating in aerobic exercise
  • 40.3% of respondents reported participating in aerobic exercise 3 to 4 times per week.
body weight
Body Weight
  • 47.1% of respondents report not being overweight
  • 29.3% of respondents report being less than 5 kg overweight.
  • 19.4% of respondents report being 6 to 12 kg overweight
  • 2.8% of respondents report being more than 13 kg overweight
diabetes
Diabetes
  • Have you ever been told by a doctor that you have diabetes?
    • Yes 1.5%
    • No 78.2%
    • Don’t know 4.5%
diabetes25
Diabetes
  • 51.4% of respondents reported needing at least some help in understanding diet restrictions.
  • 48.8% of respondents reported needing at least some help in understanding exercise needs as related to diabetes.
  • 51.2%of respondents reported needing at least some help in understanding diabetes complications.
  • 51.6%of respondents reported needing at least some help in understanding insulin.
diabetes26
Diabetes
  • Does your health system offer the supplies you need to monitor and take care of diabetic needs (syringes for insulin, medication, glucometer machine and strips to check blood sugar)
    • Yes 58.6%
    • No 20.8%
hypertension awareness
Hypertension Awareness
  • Have you ever been told by a doctor nurse or other health care professional that you have high blood pressure?
    • Yes 4.9%
    • No 74.5%
    • Don’t know 3.6%
hypertension awareness28
Hypertension Awareness
  • Are you currently taking medicine for high blood pressure?
    • Yes 1.5%
    • No 81.3%
hypertension awareness29
Hypertension Awareness
  • Did you know that high blood pressure can cause the following?
  • Stroke Yes 69.9% No 13.6%
  • Heart Attack Yes 73.3% No 10%
  • Kidney Failure Yes 49% No 34.4%
  • Headaches Yes 60.3% No 23.1%
lifestyle awareness
Lifestyle Awareness
  • Did you know that poor nutrition can cause high blood pressure?
    • Yes 52.9% No 30.6%
  • Did you know that smoking and being overweight can cause high blood pressure
    • Yes 69.9% No 13.8%
  • Did you know that excess alcohol intake can cause high blood pressure and stroke
    • Yes 62% No 21.2%
study limitations
Study Limitations
  • Self-report survey.
  • Language and cultural differences
  • No pilot test on revised survey
implications
Implications
  • Education
  • Clinical practice
  • Future research