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Feeding the Beef Cow Production 饲养肉用母牛. Tennis Marx, MSc. 泰妮丝 . 马克思 Beef Production Systems Specialist, Edmonton, Alberta Canada 加拿大阿尔伯塔省埃德蒙顿 肉牛生产体系专家. ENERGY 能量. Usually the most limiting nutrient in a ration

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Feeding the beef cow production

Feeding the Beef Cow Production 饲养肉用母牛

Tennis Marx, MSc.泰妮丝.马克思

Beef Production Systems Specialist,

Edmonton, Alberta Canada

加拿大阿尔伯塔省埃德蒙顿

肉牛生产体系专家


Energy
ENERGY能量

  • Usually the most limiting nutrient in a ration

  • Fuel required for body functions (movement, heat, production, weight gain, etc.)

  • Ruminants obtain energy from the fiber, carbohydrate and fat portions of a diet

  • 通常是日料中最有限的营养

  • 是身体功能的燃料(运动、热量、生产、增重,等)

  • 反刍动物通过日料中的纤维、碳水化合物、脂肪获得能量。


Signs of energy deficiency
SIGNS OF ENERGY DEFICIENCY能量缺乏的征兆

  • Reduction or cessation of growth and loss of weight

  • Reduced milk production, failure to conceive

  • Lower resistance to disease

  • Increased mortality

  • 生长减缓或停止,体重下降

  • 牛奶生产下降,受胎失败

  • 抗病力下降

  • 死亡率增加


Effects of energy deficiency on beef cows
Effects of Energy Deficiency on Beef Cows肉用母牛能量缺乏的后果

  • An Energy deficiency before calving will:

    • Slow down the cow’s return to estrus

    • The cow will be slow to show heat after calving

  • A Deficiency after calving will lower conception rates

  • 产犊前缺乏能量:

    -母牛再发情慢

    -产犊后发情越来越慢

  • 产犊后能量缺乏,受胎率低



Effect of an energy deficiency on reproductive performance1
Effect of an Energy Deficiency on Reproductive Performance能量缺乏对繁殖性能的影响

  • Approximately 21 Mcal of DE/day is normally required prior to calving and 27 Mcal of DE/day is required after calving.

  • The amount of energy after calving is much higher than the amount fed prior to calving.

  • 产犊前通常需要约21兆卡消化能/天,产犊后需要27兆卡消化能/天

  • 产犊后需要的能量高于产犊前


Effect of calving time on weaned weight
Effect of Calving time on Weaned Weight产犊时间对断奶重的影响

  • Delayed estrus causes late calving the following year.

  • Cows that calve late one year will calve late in the following years.

  • Calves that are born late will weight less at weaning time.

  • 发情延迟造成下一年产犊时间晚

  • 母牛一年产犊时间晚下一年产犊时间也会晚

  • 晚出生的犊牛断奶时体重会低


Increasing the energy content of diets
INCREASING THE ENERGY CONTENT OF DIETS增加日料中能量含量

  • Feed early cut grass hay or legumes instead of mature grass hay

  • Restrict amount of straw consumed

  • Grains are a concentrated source of energy

  • Feed corn or cereal grain e.g . barley

  • 用早割的干草或豆科干草代替成熟的干草

  • 限制秸秆的消耗量

  • 谷粒/粮食是能量的浓缩源

  • 喂玉米或谷类,例如:大麦


Protein
PROTEIN蛋白

  • Required for growth

  • In the rumen protein in the feed is broken down by microbes to ammonia (NH4) and carbon compounds.

  • Microbes use the NH4 to produce their own body protein.

  • 需要生长

  • 在瘤胃中饲料中的蛋白被微生物分解成氨(NH4)和碳化合物

  • 微生物使用NH4生产它们的体蛋白


Protein1
Protein蛋白

  • Cattle obtain most of their protein by digesting the microorganisms.

  • This process of breakdown and re synthesis of protein in the rumen allows the cow to use non protein nitrogen sources such as urea.

  • 牛通过消化这些细菌获得大多数蛋白

  • 这个在瘤胃中分解和综合过程允许牛使用非蛋白氮源,如尿素


Protein deficiency
PROTEIN DEFICIENCY蛋白缺乏

  • Primary symptom of protein deficiency is a depressed appetite or feed intake.

    • A reduced feed intake can cause a lower energy intake

      Reduced milk production

  • Irregular or delayed estrus

  • Loss of weight

  • Slow growth

  • 蛋白缺乏的最初症状是食欲下降或饲料采食下降

    -饲料采食下降会造成能量采食不足

    牛奶生产下降

  • 不正常或延迟发情

  • 体重下降

  • 生长慢


Protein deficiency1
PROTEIN DEFICIENCY蛋白缺乏

  • The levels of protein in roughages decreases as the forage becomes more mature.

  • Green leafy roughages contain more protein than mature (brown) roughages.

  • Legumes contain higher levels of protein than grasses

  • Protein levels of grains vary with level of nitrogen in soil, growing zone, and weather

  • 饲草越成熟在粗饲中的蛋白含量就越低

  • 绿叶多的粗饲中蛋白含量高于成熟(褐色)粗饲

  • 豆科牧草蛋白含量高于禾本科

  • 由于土壤中含氮量、生长带和气候不同粮食中蛋白含量也不同


Protein supplementation
PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTATION蛋白补充

  • Feed early cut forages

  • Legume versus grass hay

  • Soybean, cotton seed meal, canola meal

  • Brewers mash or distillers grains

  • 32% beef supplements

  • Urea (NPN), liquid or block protein, supplements or ammoniated feeds

  • 喂早割的饲草

  • 豆科对禾本科

  • 黄豆、棉籽饼粉、堪诺拉饼粉

  • 啤酒糟或白酒糟

  • 32%肉牛补饲

  • 尿素(NPN),液体或块蛋白,补饲或氨化饲料


Major minerals
MAJOR MINERALS常量矿物质

  • Calcium (Ca)

  • Phosphorous (P)

  • Magnesium (Mg)

  • Sodium (Na)

  • Chlorine (Cl)

  • Potassium (K)

  • Sulfur (S)

  • 钙(CA)

  • 磷(P)

  • 镁(MG)

  • 钠(NA)

  • 氯(CL)

  • 钾(K)

  • 硫(S)


Trace minerals
TRACE MINERALS微量矿物质

  • Copper, zinc, iron, molybdenum铜、锌、铁、钼

  • Manganese, cobalt, iodine锰、钴、碘

  • Selenium, chromium硒、铬

  • Tin, nickel and fluorine锡、镍、氟


Building a ration
BUILDING A RATION建立日料

  • Ration must provide balanced amounts of energy, protein, calcium and phosphorous

  • Provide required amounts of salt, trace minerals, and vitamin A, D, & E

  • Performance will only be as good as the most limiting nutrient allows

  • DM vs as-fed or wet basis

  • 日料必须使能量、蛋白、钙和磷平衡

  • 提供需要量的盐、微量矿物质和维生素A、D和E

  • 性能要尽量达到最好

  • 干物质对喂食状态或湿喂


Steps
STEPS步骤

  • Know the weight and frame size of animal

    掌握动物的重量和身架

  • Evaluate your feeds and determine their nutritional value per pound of feed

    评估你的饲料并确定每磅饲料的营养值

  • Approx the total amounts of each feed that you want included in the ration

    使日料中的每种饲料达到各自的最佳数量


Factors affecting feed intake
FACTORS AFFECTING FEED INTAKE影响饲料采食的因素

  • Stage of maturity

  • Condition

  • Species

  • Physical form

  • Voluntary intake (90% dry matter) equivalent to 2 - 3 % of body weight

  • 成熟期

  • 体况

  • 品种

  • 身体构成

  • 自由采食(90%干物质)当量 体重的2-3%


Dry matter intake of various feeds
DRY MATTER INTAKE OF VARIOUS FEEDS不同饲料的干物质采食

  • DM intake (% of B.W.)

  • Lush, young legume, grass pasture 2.75 - 3.5%

  • Grass and grass/legume silage good quality 2.0 - 2.5%

  • Good quality legume hay 2.5 - 3.0%

  • 干物质采食(体重的%)

  • 茂盛、鲜嫩豆科、禾本科草场 2.75-3.5%

  • 禾本科和禾本科/豆科青贮好质量 2.0-2.5%

  • 好质量豆科干草 2.5-3.0%


Dry matter intake of various feeds1
DRY MATTER INTAKE OF VARIOUS FEEDS不同饲料的干物质采食

  • Re-growth pasture 1.5 - 2.0%

    再生草场1.5-2.5%

  • Mature grass hay 1.0 - 1.5%

    成熟禾本科干草1.0-1.5%

  • Cereal and grass straw .5 - 1.5%

    粮食和草秸杆0.5-1.5%


Cold weather feeding of cows
Cold Weather Feeding of Cows冷气候情况下饲养母牛

  • Sudden drops in temperature during winter will cause cows & feedlot cattle to consume more feed.

  • If cattle are fed poor quality feeds (straw), they will try to consume more than they can digest and may become impacted.

  • Processing poor quality feed through a hammer mill will only increase feed intake, increasing potential for impaction.

    • Will not increase energy intake of diet.

  • 冬季突然降温母牛对饲料需求量增加

  • 如果母牛吃的是质量不好的饲料(秸秆)它们就尽量多吃,以至于超出其消化能力,造成梗塞

  • 用锤式粉碎机加工质量不好的饲料只能增加饲料采食,增加梗塞的危险

    -不能增加日料能量采食


Cold weather feeding of cow sample diet 450 kg beef cow mid pregnancy 450
Cold Weather Feeding of CowSample Diet – 450 kg Beef Cow mid-Pregnancy冷气候情况下饲养母牛样品日料—450公斤中期妊娠的肉用母牛

  • During periods of cold temperatures, increase the energy content of the diet.

    在冷温度时期增加日料的能量含量

  • By feeding additional grain at a rate of 0.5 kg of grain for every –5° C that the temperature is below –20° C at mid-day.

  • 在中午温度-20%时每下降-5º C就要增加0.5公斤的粮食


Sample diet 450 kg beef cow after calving 450
Sample Diet – 450 kg Beef Cow After Calving简单日料—450公斤产犊后的肉用母牛

  • Cereal (corn) straw 7.5 Kg / day

  • Alfalfa Hay 1.5 kg / day

  • Corn Grain 3.0 kg / day

  • Distillers Mash 2.0 kg / day

  • CaHP04 0.018 kg/day

  • Fort Trace Mineral Salt 0.02 kg / day

  • Vitamin ADE 0.003 kg / day

  • Total amount fed 15.54 kg/day/cow

  • 粮食(玉米)秸秆 7.5公斤/天

  • 苜蓿干草 1.5公斤/天

  • 玉米 3.0公斤/天

  • 白酒糟 2.0公斤/天

  • CaHPO4 0.018公斤/天

  • 福特微量矿物质盐 0.02公斤/天

  • 维生素 ADE 0.003公斤/天

  • 饲料总量 15.54公斤/天/母牛


Conclusions
Conclusions结论

  • These rations were formulated using average book feed values.

  • It is advised to feed test each of the feeds used prior to the start of your winter feeding program.

  • Monitor the condition of the cattle during the winter.

  • Adjust diets to cows condition & appetite , changes in weather and differences in feed sources.

  • 这些日料都是用平均饲料值配制的

  • 建议你在冬季饲养计划开始前测试你所有的饲料

  • 冬季监测牛的膘情

  • 根据牛的膘情、食欲、气候变化和饲料源调整日料


Conclusion
Conclusion结论

  • If you want consistent high conception rates, shorter calving periods and high milk production,you must provide the necessary nutrients in adequate quantities!

  • 如果你想始终获得高受胎率、短产犊期和高产奶量,你必须提供充足数量的必要营养!