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Biology Review Chart. 2011-2012. Science Processes. Compare & Contrast the following terms & give an example of each: Quantitative v. qualitative Hypothesis v. theory Write a definition for the following terms: Inference Science

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Science processes
Science Processes

  • Compare & Contrast the following terms & give an example of each:

    • Quantitative v. qualitative

    • Hypothesis v. theory

  • Write a definition for the following terms:

    • Inference

    • Science

  • Explain why scientists need to measure with accuracy & precision.

  • List the steps of the scientific method.

Characteristics of life
Characteristics of Life

  • List the 10 characteristics an object must possess to be considered an organism


  • Define the following terms & give an example of each:

    • Predation

    • Parasitism

    • Commensalism

    • Mutualism

    • Competition

  • Compare & contrast the following terms:

    • Food Chain

    • Food Web

  • List the levels of ecology.

Ecology continued
Ecology (continued)

  • Summarize what happens in the two types of succession.

  • Explain logistic growth and what keeps a population from growing infinitely.

  • Draw an energy, biomass, & numbers pyramid. Include labels for each level.

  • Sketch a food chain using the following organisms: killer whale, phytoplankton, seal, shrimp, fish. Label producers & consumers.


  • For each type of macromolecule (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids) list the following:

    • Monomers (building blocks)

    • Examples

    • Function

    • How you would identify a diagram of that molecule? What elements, functional groups or shapes would you see?

  • ENZYMESare proteins which act as catalysts. They speed up reactions in your body by lowering the activation energy.

  • Substrates bind to the active site on enzymes.

  • Dehydration synthesis bonds monomers to make polymers by removing water.


Cells cell parts
Cells & Cell Parts

  • Copy the chart:

Cell energy transport
Cell Energy & Transport

  • Cell Membrane:

    • Function – acts as a selectively permeable boundary around the cell.

    • Structure – composed of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins “gates”

  • Passive transport (no energy required!)

    • List the 3 types of passive transport & briefly explain.

  • Active Transport – requires __________– moves substances against the concentration gradient from _____to ______concentrations

Cell energy transport cont
Cell Energy & Transport (cont.)

  • ATP Molecule

    (A) adenosine (B) ribose (C/D) phosphate

    • ATP is the energy molecule

      made from cell respiration.

    • Energy is release when a phosphate group is released.

Cell cycle division
Cell Cycle & Division

  • The cell cycle is important to the growth of organisms because it allows for growth from a single, fertilized egg & also repair of the organism.

  • Interphase- G1, S, & G2; resting stage

  • Prophase- preparation phase

  • Metaphase- chromosomes line up in the middle

  • Anaphase- chromosome separate & move away to the poles

  • Telophase- two new daughter cells produced

  • The cell cycle can lead to cancer if disrupted.

Cell cycle division continued
Cell Cycle & Division (continued)

  • Draw & label the diagram

Dna structure replication
DNA Structure & Replication

  • Building blocks of DNA- ___________________

    • Contain ______________ sugar

    • _______________

    • A __________ base

  • Shape of DNA molecule- ___________ _________

  • Discovered by _________ & _________

  • ________ made the observation that in each organism, the amount of adenine equaled thymine, and the amount of guanine equaled cytosine.

  • Base pairing rule states adenine pairs with _______ & guanine goes with _________.

  • Bonds

    • Between sugar & phosphate= ______________

    • Between nitrogen bases= __________________


Dna structure replication continued
DNA Structure & Replication (continued)

  • The process of making a copy of DNA is _______________

  • Simplified Steps of Replication:

    • DNA double helix ______________.

    • An enzyme breaks hydrogen bonds between the bases. The name for this process is called _________________.

    • DNA Polymerase enzyme brings _______ _____________ to attach to the exposed bases.

    • Two identical double helixes are complete.

  • Write the strand that would be formed if the DNA template read C A T T A G GGA.

Protein synthesis
Protein Synthesis


1. Helicase: unwinds DNA helix

  • RNA Polymerase: finds and matches RNA

    nucleotides to DNA.

    *64 different codons, but only 20 amino acids.


  • A codon is a (messenger) mRNA nucleotide triplet. (ex. AUG)

  • The order of bases in a codon determines an amino acid.

  • Transfer RNA or tRNA , carries amino acids to the ribosome.

  • The tRNA has an anticodon, which is a three nucleotide sequence, which are complementary to mRNA codons.

Protein synthesis continued
Protein Synthesis (continued)


Transcribe: TAC TTT ATC DNA

___ ___ ___ mRNA

___ ___ ___ Amino Acid

Translate: ___ ___ ___ tRNA

MUTATIONS- Random alterations in DNA

  • Point Mutation – a single base is changed to another


    AUG AAG UAG Neutral mutation (AAA & AAG are both lysine)

  • Frameshift– a deletion or addition of a base that may significantly change the function of a protein. This changes every codon after the deletion or insertion.



Have you seen this pirate?

Mendelian genetics
Mendelian Genetics

  • Define the following terms:

    • Gregor Mendel

    • Gene

    • Allele

    • Homozygous

    • Heterozygous

    • Genotype

    • Phenotype

    • Gamete

    • Dominant

    • Recessive

  • A man who is heterozygous for free earlobes marries a woman who has attached earlobes. Free ears=E attached=e What would be the genotypic ratio for their offsping? (Draw Punnett square!)

Mendelian genetics continued
MendelianGenetics (continued)

  • Practice the FOIL method to determine the possible gamete combinations for the following parental genotypes.

    -RrYy= _____ -FFBb= ______ -ttGG=______

  • Work out the genotype ratio for the cross between 2 parents who are RrYy & RrYY.

Non mendelian genetics
Non-mendelian Genetics

  • Incomplete Dominance: There is no dominant or recessive, the heterozygous condition results in a "blending" of the two traits.

  • Codominance: Both alleles in the heterozygote express themselves fully.

  • Multiple Alleles: A gene that has more than two possible alleles, though only two alleles are present at a time. Ex. Blood types

    Solve the Punnett Squares:

  • Black and White alleles are co-dominant and create speckled offspring. What would be the phenotype ratio of the cross between two speckled chickens? B= Black, W = White, BW = Speckled

  • Hemophilia is a sex linked characteristic. A normal woman who is not a carrier for hemophilia marries a man with hemophilia. The couple are expecting a baby boy. What is the percent chance that the boy will have hemophilia?

Non mendelian genetics cont
Non-mendelian Genetics (cont.)

  • A ________ is a picture of the chromosomes that an individual has. It shows the ______of the person with XX being a ____and XY being a ___. It can also show genetic abnormalities. A normal human will have __chromosomes or ___pairs.

  • A _________chart shows the relationship within a family of a single trait.

    • In a pedigree, squares represent: _________

    • In a pedigree, circles represent: _________

    • In a pedigree, roman numerals represent: _______________


  • Evolution - change in an organism over time

  • VestigalOrgan - organ that serves no useful function in an organism

  • Natural Selection -concept in which only those organisms best suited to the environment get to survive; survival of the fittest

  • Homologous Structure -structures that have different mature forms in different organisms but develop from the same embryonic tissues

  • Common Descent - principle that all living things have a common ancestor

  • Theory- well supported testable explanation that unifies a broad range of observations

  • Adaptation- inherited characteristic that increases an organism’s chance of survival

  • Descent with Modification - principle that each living species has descended, with changes, from other species over time

Evolution continued
Evolution (continued)

  • Fitness- ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its environment

  • Speciation - formation of a new species

    The Scientists:

  • ______: The earth was millions not thousands of years old.

  • _________: If pop’s grow unchecked, sooner or later they will run out of resources

  • _______:Through the use or disuse of organs, organisms acquired or lost certain traits in their lifetime

  • ______:Scientists should use current processes to explain past events in geology.

  • _______:Book titled: “On the Origin of Species” Considered the father of evolution. Studied in Galapagos Islands







  • __________- the field of Biology that identifies and classifies organisms.

  • _____ ______: “two-word” naming system used to identify organisms.

  • Scientific Name -consists of a _____name and a ______name.

    • Write homo sapiens in the correct format.

  • _________-Developed the classification system in mid 1700’s.

  • List the Levels of Classification

  • Phylogeny- evolutionary relationships among organisms

  • __________-A tool used for identifying organisms by using specific observable traits of the organism.

  • Kingdoms

    • Fill out the chart below


    • Viruses- microscopic particles that invade cells and destroy them.

      -A virus is NOT a cell and isNOT living.

      -Made of genetic material in a protein coat

    • Two Main Parts: Genetic Material & Protein Coat- Also called a capsid (encloses the viral genome)

    • Not living because they:

      • have no cells

      • can’t use energy

      • can’t make proteins

      • can’t reproduce on their own

    Viruses continued
    Viruses (continued)

    Basic Steps of a Viral Infection

    • A________ to host

    • I________ viral DNA or RNA

    • M_______ viral parts within host cell

    • A________ viral genome inside protein coat

    • R________ virus from ruptured cell

      _______ Cycle –new viruses causes the cell to burst (or “lyses”), releasing newly made viruses that will infect other cells

      _________ Cycle – Viral DNA becomes part of the cell’s DNA and then replicates along with the cell. (does NOT cause the cell to burst right away)

      Viral infections include:

    Micro organisms





    Cell wall w/ peptidoglycan

    Motility w/ flagella

    Autotroph or heterotroph

    Live everywhere!

    Include coccus, bacillus, and spirilla shapes.

    • Prokaryotic

    • Unicellular

    • Cell wall w/o peptidoglycan

    • Motility w/ flagella

    • Autotroph or heterotroph

    • Live in extreme environments

    • Include methanogens, halophiles & thermoacidophiles



    • Eukaryotic

    • Unicellular or multicellular

    • Some w/ cell wall

    • Motility w/ flagella, cilia or pseudopods

    • Autotroph or heterotroph

    • Eukaryotic

    • Unicellular yeast; the rest multicellular

    • cell wall made of chitin

    • Non-motile

    • Heterotroph

    Micro organisms continued
    Micro-organisms (continued)

    • Bacteria reproduce in 3 ways:

      • Binary Fission, Conjugation, Spore Formation

    • Importance of Bacteria: Decomposers, Nitrogen Fixation, Photosynthesis, Oil spill clean up, Digestion aid and vitamin production, Foods-cheese and yogurt, Cause disease- Tuberculosis, Strep throat

    • Importance of Fungi: antibiotics (penicillin), Eaten- bleu cheese, baking – yeast, diseases include ring worm and athletes foot. attack and destroy crops

    • Three types of Protists- animal like, plant like, fungus like