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Financing Your Venture. Presented by Jeffrey A. Robinson, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Management & Entrepreneurship NYU Stern School of Business. Agenda. The Business Plan Review of the financial aspects of the plan Two more financial consideration Start-up Budgets and Operating Budgets

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financing your venture

Financing Your Venture

Presented by

Jeffrey A. Robinson, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor of Management & Entrepreneurship

NYU Stern School of Business

  • The Business Plan
    • Review of the financial aspects of the plan
  • Two more financial consideration
  • Start-up Budgets and Operating Budgets
  • Ways to Finance your Venture

What is a good framework for entrepreneurship?




  • Capital can be acquired, exchanged & converted
  • Five forms of capital
    • Financial (debt, equity, etc.)
    • Human (skills, education)
    • Social (networks of people)
    • Cultural (social resources, family background and knowledge of cultural nuances)
    • Intellectual (IP in firms, transferable)
  • The identification, evaluation, exploration, and exploitation of a venture opportunity
  • The structures around an opportunity or context
The cultivation and management of innovation and innovative practices
  • The innovation of business models
  • The protection of innovations


Networks connect people within organizations and between organization
  • Networks connect entrepreneurs to capital, innovation, opportunities
  • Networks tie everything together
  • Personal Networks/Professional Networks/ Entrepreneurial Networks







The success or failure of your venture depends upon how your put these pieces together.

why is this important
Why is this important?
  • … because good entrepreneurs leverage capital, opportunities, innovation and networks to create viable ventures
  • … because good business plans demonstrate how an entrepreneurial team will leverage capital, opportunities, innovation and networks to create a new venture
financial statements

Financial Statements

Detailing the Financial Picture for your Venture

financing requirements and opportunity
Financing Requirements and Opportunity
  • Target financings (equity and debt)
  • Current Offering
  • Capitalization
  • Use of Proceeds
financial projections
Financial Projections
  • 5 year summary projections
  • 3 year detailed, quarterly projections
  • Balance Sheet
  • Income Statement
  • Cash Flow Operational
  • Break-even Analysis
the start up budget the operating budget

The Start-up Budget& The Operating Budget

What will it take to get this venture started?

what s the difference
What’s the Difference?
  • Start-Up Budget
    • How much will you need to get this venture started?
    • Includes one time capital purchases and typically 3-6 months of operations
  • Operating Budget
    • How much will you need to remain in business?
    • Includes the monthly expenses to run your business
financing your venture16

Financing Your Venture

Sources of Funding

traditional ventures types of firms
Traditional Ventures: Types of Firms
  • Lifestyle firms
    • generally < $1M in revenues
    • founders have no desire to expand
    • Forged out of something you are passionate about
  • Growth Firms
    • $1 M to 20 M revenues, 10-20% growth
    • $20M + revenues, >20% growth {gazelles}
    • Founders want to expand and grow the firm
opportunity recognition
Opportunity Recognition
  • There are far more good ideas than there are good business opportunities
  • Many businesses run out of money before they find enough customers for their good ideas
how much money they had
In terms of start-up capital, including personal assets, Inc. 500 companies started with little.*

23% (B)

How Much Money They Had

14% (G)

13% (A)

13% (D)

13% (F)

12% (E)

12% (C)

(A) Less than $1,000 (E) $50,001 to $100,000

2004 Inc. Magazine 500

(B) $1,000 to $10,000 (F) $100,001 to $300,000

(C) $10,001 to $20,000 (G) More than $300,000

(D) $20,001 to $50,000

*”Start-up capital” refers to funds raised before any product or service was delivered. “Personal assets” includes savings, mortgage or other personal loans, credit cards, 401(k), etc.

where the money came from
The following sources of funds provided Inc. 500 start-up capital.

2% (G)

4% (F)

2% (H)

4% (E)

Where the Money Came From

8% (D)


53% (A)

10% (C)

17% (B)

(A) Personal assets

(B) Other founders’ personal assets

(C) Assets of family or friends (other than co-founders)

(D) Commercial bank loan or line of credit

(E) Private equity investment

(F) Financing from a supplier, customer, or other business entity

(G) SBA loan or funds from other government program

2004 Inc. Magazine 500

(H) Formal venture capital

since start up

Since Start-up

of companies have raised private equity.

2004 Inc. Magazine 500

since start up22

Since Start-up

of companies have raised venture capital.


2004 Inc. Magazine 500


Seed Idea

Startup Identifying Customers

Growth Working Capital Generally Needed

Expansion Need Capital for WC as well as for equipment and infrastructure

Harvest Always think how investors and entrepreneurs get their money out

bootstrap capital
Bootstrap Capital
  • Self
  • Business Partners
  • Friends and Family
    • Personal Savings
    • Credit Cards
    • Loans against property
    • Bank Loans
    • Equity Investments by friends and family
bootstrap finance bhide
Bootstrap Finance (Bhide)
  • Get operational quickly
  • Look for quick break-even, cash-generating projects
  • Offer high-value products or services that can sustain direct personal selling
  • Forget about the crack team
  • Keep growth in check
  • Focus on cash, not on profits, market share, or anything else
  • Cultivate banks before the business becomes creditworthy
more bootstrapping tips
More bootstrapping tips …
  • Do not buy new what you can buy used.
  • Do not buy used what you can lease.
  • Do not lease what you can borrow.
  • Do not borrow when you can barter.
  • Do not barter when you can beg.
  • Do not beg what you can scavenge.
  • Do not scavenge what you can get free.
  • Do not take for free what someone will pay you for.
  • Do not take payment for something that people will bid for.

From “10 Principles of Entrepreneurial Creation” by S. Venkataraman

debt or equity
Debt or Equity
  • Equity will help your grow quicker but will result in sharing of wealth and control with other investors
  • Debt is less expensive than equity
    • Quicker and easier to find
    • Requires regular payments of principle and equity
debt vs equity
Debt VS Equity
  • Always a consideration
  • Debt usually less expensive than equity but hard to get
  • If you do use debt -- generally you will have to pledge assets that are personal
    • In a small business the owner personally pledges assets
sources of capital
Sources of Capital
  • Government
    • SBA - Small Business Administration 7 (A) Program
    • SBIC - Small Business Investment Corporation/ MESBIC
      • no more than 20 percent of SBIC assets in 1 company
      • MESBIC – Minority Enterprise SBIC
        • 51 percent owned by socially or economically disadvantaged minority
    • SBIR – Small Business Innovation Research Grants
sources of capital31
Sources of Capital
  • Banks
    • Amount available to entrepreneurs is highly depended on where in the business cycle the economy happens to be
    • Business loans are different than commercial real estate loans
    • Consider Community Development Banks if Social Enterprise
    • Small Business Services at local bank – i.e. Line of Credit
    • Factoring -- Selling Accounts Receivables for Cash
sources of capital32
Sources of Capital
  • Corporations
    • We do not really talk much about in this course
    • It is not uncommon for a former employee to get funding from her old company if the business would be complimentary
    • Corporation may be able to use the technology
sources of capital33
Sources of Capital
  • Angel Investors
    • Private investors (often family and friends -- but can be established member of a community)
    • return 20-40 percent annually
  • Venture Capitalist
    • Generally don’t finance seed or startup phase
    • return 30 to 60 percent annually
informal investors
Informal Investors
  • What kind of ventures lend themselves to the use of informal investors?
    • Ventures with capital requirements of $50 K - $500 K
    • Ventures with sales potential of $2 M - $20 M over 5 to 10 years
    • Small established, privately held venture with sales and profit growth of 10% to 20% per year
    • Some R&D deals
    • Companies with high levels of FCF within 3 or 5 years

Source: Timmons, Chapter 14

characteristics of business angels
Characteristics of Business Angels

Bill Wetzel found that business angels are mainly American self-made entrepreneur millionaires who:

  • Have made it on their own, have substantial business and financial experience, and are likely to be in their 40s or 50s.
  • Are well educated: 95% hold college degrees and 51% have graduate degrees.
  • Have technical or business education—of those who have graduate degrees, 44% were in a technical field and 35% in business or economics.
  • Are predominantly male—over 96% are men.
sources of capital37
Sources of Capital
  • IPO
    • Usually when Angels, Venture Capitalists and sometimes entrepreneur try to “cash out”
    • Expensive
    • Time Consuming
    • Highly dependent on where the business cycle is
finding money
Finding Money
  • Less than 1 percent from SBA
  • Angels -- Informal Capital
    • Require an average of 26%/yr
    • Usually local
    • Accept about 30% of deals
  • Banks
    • Will lend but usually require collateral
    • Easier to get a personal loan than a commercial loan
resources and sources
Resources and Sources
  • Angel Investor Networks/Venture Exhibitions or Venture Fairs
  • Your Business School (Entrepreneurship Center, Alumni Network)
  • Business Plan Competitions ($25 K - $100 K)
  • City, State and Regional Economic Development agencies/departments
contact information

Contact information

Jeffrey A. Robinson, Ph.D.

[email protected]

African American Women Entrepreneurs Research Project

The Ph.D. Project – Ph.D. in Business School

Venture Plan Document