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Chapter 4, part B. Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells. Plasma Membrane. Functions for membranes Selective permeability allows passage of some molecules Movement through the membrane Active - requires energy Passive - no energy involved Enzymes for ATP production

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chapter 4 part b

Chapter 4, part B

Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

plasma membrane
Plasma Membrane
  • Functions for membranes
  • Selective permeability allows passage of some molecules
  • Movement through the membrane
    • Active - requires energy
    • Passive - no energy involved
  • Enzymes for ATP production
  • Photosynthetic pigments on foldings called chromatophores or thylakoids
plasma membrane3
Plasma Membrane
  • Damage to the membrane by alcohols, quaternary ammonium (detergents) and polymyxin antibiotics causes leakage of cell contents.
movement across membranes
Movement Across Membranes

Passive Transport

Diffusion and Osmosis

  • Simple diffusion: Movement of a solute from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
  • Facilitative diffusion: Solute combines with a transporter protein in the membrane.
movement across membranes6
Movement Across Membranes
  • Osmosis
    • Movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of high water concentration to an area of lower water.
  • Osmotic pressure
    • The pressure needed to stop the movement of water across the membrane.

Figure 4.18a

movement across membranes8
Movement Across Membranes
  • Active transport of substances requires a transporter protein and ATP.
  • Group translocation of substances requires a transporter protein and PEP.
cytoplasm
Cytoplasm
  • Cytoplasm is the substance inside the plasma membrane

Figure 4.6a, b

nuclear area
Nuclear Area
  • Nuclear area (nucleoid)

Figure 4.6a, b

ribosomes
Ribosomes

Figure 4.6a

ribosomes12
Ribosomes

50S and 30S subunits making a 70S ribosome

Composed of RNA and protein

Figure 4.19

inclusions
Inclusions
  • Phosphate reserves
  • Energy reserves
  • Energy reserves
  • Energy reserves
  • Ribulose 1,5-diphosphate carboxylase for CO2 fixation
  • Protein covered cylinders
  • Iron oxide (destroys H2O2)
  • Metachromatic granules (volutin)
  • Polysaccharide granules
  • Lipid inclusions
  • Sulfur granules
  • Carboxysomes
  • Gas vacuoles
  • Magnetosomes
endospores
Endospores
  • Resting cells
  • Resistant to desiccation, heat, chemicals
  • Bacillus, Clostridium
  • Sporulation: Endospore formation
  • Germination: Return to vegetative state
eukaryotic cells
Eukaryotic Cells
  • Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
    • Prokaryote comes from the Greek words for pre-nucleus.
    • Eukaryote comes from the Greek words for true nucleus.
flagella and cilia
Flagella and Cilia

Figure 4.23a, b

slide19
Eukaryotic Flagella
  • Microtubules
  • Tubulin
  • 9 pairs + 2 arrangements

Figure 4.23c

cell wall
Cell Wall
  • Cell wall
    • Plants, algae, fungi
    • Carbohydrates
  • Cellulose, chitin, glucan, mannan
  • Glycocalyx
    • Carbohydrates extending from animal plasma membrane
    • Bonded to proteins and lipids in membrane
plasma membrane21
Plasma Membrane
  • Phospholipid bilayer
  • Peripheral proteins
  • Integral proteins
  • Transmembrane proteins
  • Sterols
  • Glycocalyx carbohydrates
plasma membrane22
Plasma Membrane
  • Selective permeability allows passage of some molecules
  • Simple diffusion
  • Facilitative diffusion
  • Osmosis
  • Active transport
  • Endocytosis
    • Phagocytosis: Pseudopods extend and engulf particles
    • Pinocytosis: Membrane folds inward bringing in fluid and dissolved substances
eukaryotic cell
Eukaryotic Cell
  • Cytoplasm Substance inside plasma membrane and outside nucleus
  • Cytosol Fluid portion of cytoplasm
  • Cytoskeleton Microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules
  • Cytoplasmic streaming Movement of cytoplasm throughout cells
organelles
Organelles
  • Membrane-bound:
    • Nucleus Contains chromosomes
    • ER Transport network
    • Golgi complex Membrane formation and secretion
    • Lysosome Digestive enzymes
    • Vacuole Brings food into cells and provides support
    • Mitochondrion Cellular respiration
    • Chloroplast Photosynthesis
    • Peroxisome Oxidation of fatty acids; destroys H2O2
eukaryotic cell25
Eukaryotic Cell
  • Not membrane-bound:
    • Ribosome Protein synthesis
    • Centrosome Consists of protein fibers and centrioles
    • Centriole Mitotic spindle formation
nucleus
Nucleus

Figure 4.24

ribosomes28
Ribosomes
  • 80S
    • Membrane-bound Attached to ER
    • Free In cytoplasm
  • 70S
    • In chloroplasts and mitochondria
golgi complex
Golgi Complex

Figure 4.26

lysosomes
Lysosomes

Figure 4.22b

vacuoles
Vacuoles

Figure 4.22b

mitochondrion
Mitochondrion

Figure 4.27

chloroplast
Chloroplast

Figure 4.28

endosymbiotic theory
Endosymbiotic Theory

http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/anisamples/nonmajorsbiology/organelles.html

Figure 10.2

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