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KEYNOTE PRESENTATION: Biofuels in West Africa - case of jatropha in Mali. Energy situation of Mali. Mali in the centre of West Africa Area of 1 241 000 km 2 Rainfall varies from 1500mm per year in the south to almost none in the north Two thirds of the country is covered by desert

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slide1

KEYNOTE PRESENTATION:

Biofuels in West Africa - case of jatropha in Mali

UNIDO/AU/Brazil conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

slide2

Energy situation of Mali

  • Mali in the centre of West Africa
  • Area of
  • 1 241 000 km2
  • Rainfall varies from 1500mm per year in the south to almost none in the north
  • Two thirds of the country is covered by desert
  • Population: approx 12 million
  • 13% of population has access to electricity
  • 90% of the population use firewood and charcoal as primary source of energy
  • Modern energy supply is based on oil product

UNIDO/AU/Brazil conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

impact of oil imports on the economy of a non oil producing country like mali
Impact of oil imports on the economy of a non-oil-producing country like Mali

Source: ONAP

UNIDO/AU/Brazil conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

slide4

Peak oil theory

UNIDO/AU/Brazil conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

slide5

Biofuel potential for Africa

  • Energy is essential for economic development;
  • A country that masters its energy production masters its economic development;
  • Considering Africa’s poor level of economic development, it is essential to give priority to the use of indigenous natural resources for modern energy supply
  • Most African countries have huge potential for natural resources.
  • Economy based on the utilisation of oil will not bring Africa anywhere, in addition the debt situation is not helping at all.
  • Therefore, the sustainable use of natural resources & energy efficiency measures is where efforts should be focused
  • This is the only way that African economic development can take off in a sustainable way.
  • In this regards there are different biofuel experiences in Africa, example: jatropha promotion in Mali

UNIDO/AU/Brazil conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

slide6

Biofuel experience in Mali:

  • Best known liquid biofuels in Mali are Jatropha oil and ethanol
  • First experience in Mali with ethanol dates back to 1989
  • An unsuccessful attempt was made by a sugar production company to run a petrol engine with a 6% blend of ethanol
  • Most significant experience in Mali is with Jatropha oil
  • Many actions have been implemented by various actors with some level of success
  • Actions have been limited to the cultivation of the jatropha plant, extraction of oil from seed, and small scale production and utilisation of pure jatropha oil as fuel for transport, rural energy service provision & rural electrification
  • Organised commercial production of pure jatropha oil and its refining into biodiesel has not yet been done in Mali

UNIDO/AU/Brazil conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

slide7

Jatropha, a plant well adapted to Malian conditions, is widespread and used as a living hedge between fields.

  • Traditionally used to make soap, jatropha can also be pressed to give oil and press cake (which can be used as organic fertiliser).

UNIDO/AU/Brazil conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

slide8

Seed on the bush

Pressed oil

Seed without shell

UNIDO/AU/Brazil conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

the jatropha system
The Jatropha system

3-4kg seed is pressed

1 litre of oil

2-3kg residue produced

(organic material with some oil content)

Sedimentation

to remove small particles

High grade organic fertiliser

Soap production & income generation

Use in engine for provision of rural energy services

10%

UNIDO/AU/Brazil conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

slide10

Pure Plant Oil or PPO biofuel experience in Mali

  • GTZ (German Technical Cooperation) in collaboration with CNESOLER (Malian National Centre for Solar & Renewable Energy) experimented with running 8hp diesel engines on pure Jatropha oil.
  • UNIDO/ UNDP Multifunctional Platform Programs UNIDO & UNDP started programs in Mali to disseminate the multifunctional platform (MFP) to power various tools, such as a cereal mill, a husker, oil press, alternator, battery charger, welding, carpentry equipments, etc. The UNIDO program tested 4 MFP to run on jatropha, and UNDP tested some of their MFP with jatropha.

UNIDO/AU/Brazil conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

slide11

MFC Nyetaa

PPO experience in Mali

  • Barrier removal project with CNESOLER to produce local press , funded by UNEP
  • MFC initiated the conversion of two pick up Toyota pickups to run on Jatropha oil with the technical support of Elsbett GmbH, a German company. This project aims to show the possibility of using Jatropha in the transport sector.
  • 5 rural energy services centres with 7 kW generator each, which run on jatropha oil. These centres provide rural communities with agricultural services, battery charging, public lighting, etc.

UNIDO/AU/Brazil conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

jatropha press technology transfer
Jatropha Press Technology Transfer

The lack of availability of a Jatropha press on the local market was a barrier to large scale adoption of Jatropha technology. MFC solved this problem by coordinating a South-South technology transfer project.

The jatropha press is now produced in Mali by a local workshop.

This allowed further actions in the field.

UNIDO/AU/Brazil conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

mfc also promotes use of jatropha oil for co 2 neutral sustainable transport in mali
MFC also promotes use of Jatropha oil for CO2 neutral sustainable transport in Mali

Two cars are now running one jatropha oil in Mali

UNIDO/AU/Brazil conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

slide14

5 rural energy service centers are installes by MFC Nyetaa for productive used by rural entrepreneurs

UNIDO/AU/Brazil conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

slide15

Embedded in local community

  • The village of Garalo contacted MFC in 1999 to request electrification
  • Consultation with village and municipality at each step
  • Village ownership and participation

UNIDO/AU/Brazil conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

slide16

Garalo Bagani Yelen

  • 300 kW of gensets, to run on locally produced Jatropha bio-oil from 1000 ha plantation
  • Part funded by AMADER (Malian Agency for the Development of Household Energy and Rural Electrification) and the rest by private foundation of Netherlands (GW)
  • 15 years of clean electricity production will transform the local economy. African villages need power – it can be biofuel or it can be diesel
  • Largest project of its type in Mali (in terms of plantation size and power output), possibly in West Africa.
  • Electricity will be a catalyst for local SME/SMI development and job creation

UNIDO/AU/Brazil conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

slide17

MFC’s Garalo Bagani Yelen project

Rural electrification based on jatropha oil….

  • Renewable energy can drive local sustainable development, leapfrogging the fossil fuel stage.
  • Diversification of incomes
  • Deeply embedded in local society with support from the village and the municipality
  • 1 000 hectares of Jatropha distributed among peoples fields
  • Local sustainable projects of this type need prioritisation and protection

UNIDO/AU/Brazil conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

garalo jatropha seedlink and field test station

Garalo jatropha seedlink and field test station

UNIDO/AU/Brazil conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

slide19

Government of Mali Jatropha Initiatives (1)

  • UNDP funded CNESOLER’s Women and Renewable Energy (FENR) project to install 3 jatropha fuelled MFPs.
  • National programme for the valorisation of Jatropha as a source of energy (PNVEP) (a 5 year 1 million US$ project). The project should lay a strong foundation for an integrated biofuels production capability in the country. Under this programme, a village of Keleya with 3 000 inhabitants was electrified with 60 kVA power plant and a mini grid.

UNIDO/AU/Brazil conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

slide20

Government of Mali Jatropha Initiatives (2)

  • Danida funded project for the development and the commercialisation of jatropha in order to involve the private sector for the development of the sector
  • Many research action activities will be done in the frame of this 3 year project
  • Installation of an industrial unit of jatropha oil production
  • Elaboration of a National Biofuel Strategy
  • The project is implemented by the CNESOLER, MFC NYETAA, Institute d’Economie Rural (IER), Institut Polytechnique Rural (IPR).

UNIDO/AU/Brazil conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

slide21

Key drivers of Malian jatropha experience:

  • Diversification of energy sources and lower exposure to the price volatility of the international oil market
  • Rural development needs
  • Land availability - Mali has huge potential for biofuel production in terms of land availability for feedstock cultivation

UNIDO/AU/Brazil conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

slide22

Critical success factors:

  • the plant is very well known in Mali and is local
  • most of the projects so far promoted local utilisation of jatropha oil
  • the training of farmers in jatropha cultivation techniques and the training of local technician for the equipment operation ad maintenance was also an important factor of success
  • Emergence of Jatropha private sector for future actions
  • & finally, there is a high political commitment and engaged local NGOs that supported these initiatives in the country

UNIDO/AU/Brazil conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

slide23

Barriers to biofuel development:

  • Lack of institutional/policy framework
  • Insufficient coordination between actors (even among various ministries)
  • Private sector interest limited due to caution and lack of information on profitability
  • Lack of finance
  • Limited technical skills of farmers and technicians

UNIDO/AU/Brazil conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

slide24

Lessons learnt for future action in Africa - planting the seeds for sustainable development biofuel projects:

UNIDO/AU/Brazil conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

slide25

Social considerations:

  • Avoid competition with food production through small scale exploitation
  • Many small scale projects can produce as much biofuel more sustainably than a few large scale monoculture projects
  • Prioritise local use of biofuel to bring maximum benefits to local population
  • Maintain existing land ownership and tenure patterns to avoid social unrest
  • Do not seek first to satisfy international markets – they are insatiable
  • Rather projects should be designed to benefit African communities first

UNIDO/AU/Brazil conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

slide26

Environmental protection:

  • Vast monoculture plantations as seen in Latin America and Asia can devastate the fragile ecosystems and bring untold social damage
  • Large irrigated plantations deplete underground water resources, in times of increased drought and lack of rain due to climate change
  • Valorise all sub-products like press cake as organic fertiliser or animal feed
  • Explore possibilities for intercropping, which can improve yields of both food and oil producing crops

UNIDO/AU/Brazil conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

slide27

Capacity building:

  • Gender considerations are essential as women's groups can play a pivotal role in plantation and harvest of jatropha
  • Training of farmers for feedstock cultivation
  • Build capacity in technical, managerial and financial skills
  • Centres of excellence can promote best practice
  • Analysis of social aspects of a project can be of crucial importance for the success or failure of any rural development initiative, including biofuel development
  • Grassroots initiatives and the active involvement of targeted communities are essential for project success
  • Mobilise research institutions at national and regional level to develop African expertise

UNIDO/AU/Brazil conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

slide28

Creation of favourable policy & finance framework:

  • Push for bundling of Jatropha plantation projects for carbon finance
  • Sensitise local & regional Financial Institutions on Jatropha
  • Pricing controls?
  • Create favourable national & regional policy to promote sustainable development
  • National biofuel policies to be created
  • Develop strict sustainability criteria by which to judge potential biofuel projects - to protect local farmers & the environment
  • Quality standards for biofuels to be developed

UNIDO/AU/Brazil conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

slide29

Awnicié – Thank you!

www.malifolkecenter.org

UNIDO/AU/Brazil conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia