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THE TEACHINGS OF ISLAM

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  1. THE TEACHINGS OF ISLAM

  2. Essential Question: What are the major teachings of Islam?

  3. ISLAM’S ORIGIN • Islam is a religion that was founded in the early 600s in Arabia (present-day Saudi Arabia)

  4. ISLAM’S ORIGIN • An Arabian named Muhammad was inspired to become a prophet after a vision of the angel Gabriel told him he was sent to Earth by God to do so • The new religion he invented would be called Islam and his followers called Muslims

  5. BELIEFS OF ISLAM • Muslims (as well as Jews and Christians) all trace their origins back to Abraham, who was the “father of the Hebrews”

  6. BELIEFS OF ISLAM • According to Muslim belief, the words of the angel Gabriel to Muhammad are what makes up the Qur’an, which is Islam’s holy book

  7. BELIEFS OF ISLAM • Muslims believe that the Jews’ Torah and the Christians’ Bible are also God’s word, but they believe that the Qu’ran is God’s FINAL revelation to the world, showing the way God wants people to behave and worship

  8. BELIEFS OF ISLAM • Because the Muslims respect parts of the Bible and Torah, they consider Christians and Jews “People of the Book”

  9. BELIEFS OF ISLAM • Islam is monotheistic, worshipping only one God (the same God of Judaism and Christianity)

  10. BELIEFS OF ISLAM

  11. BELIEFS OF ISLAM • The rules and guidelines Muslims go by in regards to their religious practices are called the Five Pillars of Islam

  12. FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM: SHAHADAH • The First Pillar is called shahadah, or “profession of faith”, in which Muslims declare their belief in one God and in Muhammad’s role as the final prophet

  13. FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM: SHAHADAH “There is no god but God, and Muhammad is the messenger of God”

  14. FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM: SHAHADAH • Shahadah means Muslims not only believe in God (or “Allah”), but pledge their submission to God to gain the reward of Heaven in the afterlife • Muslims share the same Judeo-Christian belief that God rewards good people with Heaven and punishes evil people with Hell

  15. FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM: SALAT • The Second Pillar is Salat, which means “daily ritual prayer”; prayer must be done five times per day (dawn, noon, midday, sunset, and at night)

  16. FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM: SALAT • Before praying, Muslims must perform ritual washings of their hands, arms, face, and feet

  17. FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM: SALAT • Muslim places of worship are called mosques; however, Muslims may worship anywhere

  18. FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM: SALAT • Wherever they are in the world, Muslims face in the direction of Mecca when they pray

  19. FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM: ZAKAT • The Third Pillar is “zakat”, which means “alms-giving”; this is giving money to the poor • Muslims believe sharing wealth makes it pure and helps control greed • Zakat is similar to the charitable donations made by Jews and Christians to support their communities

  20. FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM: ZAKAT • According to Islam, Muslims must donate one-fortieth (or 2.5%) of their income with their poorer neighbors

  21. FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM: SIYAM • The Fourth Pillar is Siyam, or fasting (going without food)

  22. FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM: SIYAM • Muslims fast during the month of Ramadan, the ninth month of the Muslim calendar • Ramadan honors the month Gabriel revealed God’s message to Muhammad • Muslims go without food or drink from sunrise to sunset, then attend special prayer sessions at mosques • Fasting teaches them self-control and reminds them of what it would be like to be poor

  23. FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM: SIYAM • Ramadan ends with a celebration feast day called Eid al-Fitr

  24. FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM: HAJJ • The Fifth Pillar is “hajj”, which is a pilgrimage to the city of Mecca; every 12 months in the Islamic calendar, millions of Muslims gather at Mecca

  25. FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM: HAJJ • Part of the five days of rituals is circling the Ka’aba seven times while conducting prayers and dressed in simple white clothing

  26. FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM: HAJJ • The purpose of the hajj is to promote fellowship and equality as Muslims from many countries around the world meet in Mecca • They honor Abraham (who they believe built the Ka’aba) and Muhammad and partake in four days of feasts

  27. FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM: HAJJ • All adult Muslims who are able to are expected to make the hajj once in their lifetime

  28. JIHAD • “Jihad” means “to struggle” • Early Muslims considered battles to defend their territory and expand their empire to be a form of jihad

  29. JIHAD • Muhammad declared that fighting with enemies was “lesser jihad”, while the battle to control oneself was the “greater jihad”

  30. JIHAD • Unfortunately, many extremist Muslims today see jihad as a battle against any non-Muslims (“non-believers”) and use violence to achieve their goals

  31. SHARI’A LAW • Islamic law is shari’a, or “path to be followed” • The Qu’ran gives Muslims their duties to God, while caliphs served as judges in disputes • Shari’a law grew as the Muslims’ empire expanded, providing a guide for Muslim life

  32. SHARI’A LAW • Shari’a law encourages some behaviors, while forbidding others, such as eating pork, drinking alcohol, or gambling • Shari’a also commands women to “not show their beauty”, so many Muslim women cover themselves to one degree or another

  33. Islam’s “Crescent Moon and Star” symbol; there are several theories about what it means • One is that the points of the Moon cover the ends of the Earth and the five points of the Star represent the Five Pillars of Islam

  34. Closure Activity: Review Quiz

  35. Closure Activity: Review Quiz

  36. Closure Activity: Review Quiz