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Lección 5: Gramática. Estar + gerundio Usos de SER y ESTAR Verbos que cambian en la raíz : e : i e Comparativo y superlativo de adjetivos , adverbios y nombres Pronombres usados como complemento de preposición. Estar + gerundio (1).

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lecci n 5 gram tica

Lección 5: Gramática

Estar + gerundio

Usos de SER y ESTAR

Verbosquecambian en la raíz: e : ie

Comparativo y superlativo de adjetivos, adverbios y nombres

Pronombresusadoscomocomplemento de preposición

estar gerundio 1
Estar + gerundio (1)
  • The present progressive describes an action that is in progress. It is formed with the present tense of estar and the gerundio (equivalent to the English –ing form) of the verb. Study the formation of the gerundio in the following chart.

Infinitivehablarcomer escribir

Gerundiohabl- andocom- iendoescrib- iendo

estar gerundio 2
Estar + gerundio (2)

Ejemplos:

Yoestoycomiendo.Iameating.

- ¿Estásestudiando? “Are you studying?”

- No, estoyescribiendo. “No, I am writing.”

estar gerundio 3
Estar + gerundio (3)
  • The following forms are irregular. Note the change in their stems.

Pedirpidiendoasking for

Decirdiciendosaying

Servirsirviendoserving

Dormirdurmiendosleeping

Traer trayendobringing

Leer leyendoreading

  • Note also that thei of -iendo becomes y between vowels.
estar gerundio 4
Estar + gerundio (4)

Ejemplos:

—¿Quéestánhaciendolaschicas?

“What are the girls doing?”

—Ana estáleyendoy Eva estádurmiendo.

“Ana is reading and Eva is sleeping.”

  • Some verbs, such as ser, estar, ir, and venir, are rarely used in the progressive construction.
usos de ser y estar 1
Usos de SER y ESTAR (1)
  • The English verb to be has two Spanish equivalents, ser and estar, which have distinct uses and are not interchangeable.
usos de ser y estar 2
Usos de SER y ESTAR (2)

Uses of ser

1. It describes the basic nature or inherent characteristics of a person or thing. It is also used with expressions of age that do not refer to a specific number of years.

—Anita estímida. Anita is shy.

—Estela esjoven. Estela is young.

usos de ser y estar 3
Usos de SER y ESTAR (3)

2. It is used with de to indicate origin and with adjectives denoting nationality.

—Carmen escubana; es de La Habana.

Carmen is Cuban; she is from Havana.

usos de ser y estar 4
Usos de SER y ESTAR (4)

3. It is used to identify professions and jobs.

—Yosoyprofesor de francés.

I am a French professor.

usos de ser y estar 5
Usos de SER y ESTAR (5)

4. With de, it is used to indicate possession or relationship.

—El vasoes de Ana.

The glass is Ana’s

—Ellassonlashermanasde Javier.

They are Javier’s sisters.

usos de ser y estar 6
Usos de SER y ESTAR (6)

5. With de, it describes the material that things are made of.

—El teléfonoes de plástico.

The telephone is (made of) plastic.

—La mesa es de metal.

The table is (made of) metal.

usos de ser y estar 7
Usos de SER y ESTAR (7)

6. It is used with expressions of time and with dates.

—Sonlascuatro y media.

It is four-thirty.

—Hoy esjueves, primero de julio.

Today is Thursday, July first.

usos de ser y estar 8
Usos de SER y ESTAR (8)

7. It is used with events as the equivalent of “taking place.”

—La fiesta es en mi casa.

The party is (taking place) at my house.

usos de ser y estar 9
Usos de SER y ESTAR (9)

Uses of estar

  • Estar is used to express more transitory qualities than ser and often implies the possibility of change.
usos de ser y estar 10
Usos de SER y ESTAR (10)

1. It indicates place or location.

- Ana está en casa.        

Ana is at home.

usos de ser y estar 11
Usos de SER y ESTAR (11)

2. It indicates a condition, often the result of an action, at a given moment in time.

- Élestácansado.  

He’stired.

- La puertaestácerrada. 

The door is closed.

usos de ser y estar 12
Usos de SER y ESTAR (12)

3. With personal reactions, it describes what is perceived through senses—that is—how a subject tastes, feels, looks, or seems.

- ¡Estásmuybonitahoy!

You look very pretty today!

- La sopaestámuysabrosa.

The soup is very tasty.

usos de ser y estar 13
Usos de SER y ESTAR (13)

4. In present progressive constructions, it describes an action in progress.

-Estoydesayunando.

I am having breakfast.

verbos que cambian en la ra z e ie 1
Verbosquecambian en la raíz: e : ie(1)
  • As you have already seen, Spanish verbs have two parts: a stem and an ending (-ar, -er, or -ir).

Some Spanish verbs undergo a change in the stem in the present indicative tense. When e is the last stem vowel and it is stressed, it changes to ie as shown in the following chart.

verbos que cambian en la ra z e ie 2
Verbosquecambian en la raíz: e : ie(2)
  • Note that the stem vowel is not stressed in the verb forms used with nosotros(as) and vosotros(as); therefore, the e does not change to ie.
verbos que cambian en la ra z e ie 3
Verbosquecambian en la raíz: e : ie(3)
  • Other verbs that also change from e to ieare:

cerrar(to close) comenzar

empezarentender(to understand)

pensar(to think) querer

verbos que cambian en la ra z e ie 4
Verbosquecambian en la raíz: e : ie(4)

—¿Quieresbistec?

“Do you want steak?”

—No, prefieropollo.

“No, I prefer chicken.”

—¿A quéhoracomienzanUds. a trabajar?

“At what time do you begin to work?”

—Comenzamosa lasdiez.

“We begin at ten.”

comparativo y superlativo de adjetivos adverbios y nombres 1
Comparativo y superlativo de adjetivos, adverbios y nombres (1)

Comparisons of inequality

  • In Spanish, the comparative of inequality of most adjectives, adverbs, and nouns is formed by placing más (more) or menos (less) before the adjective, the adverb, or the noun and que (than) after it.
comparativo y superlativo de adjetivos adverbios y nombres 3
Comparativo y superlativo de adjetivos, adverbios y nombres (3)

—¿Túeresmásaltaque Ana?

“Are you taller than Ana?”

—Sí, ellaes mucho másbajaqueyo.

“Yes, she is much shorter than I.”

comparativo y superlativo de adjetivos adverbios y nombres 4
Comparativo y superlativo de adjetivos, adverbios y nombres (4)
  • De is used instead of que before a numerical expression of quantity or amount.

- Luis tienemás detreintaaños.                     

Luis is over thirty years old. - Hay menos deveinteestudiantesaquí.    

There are fewer thantwentystudents here.

comparativo y superlativo de adjetivos adverbios y nombres 5
Comparativo y superlativo de adjetivos, adverbios y nombres (5)

Comparisons of equality

  • To form comparisons of equality with adjectives, adverbs, and nouns in Spanish, use the adjectives tanto, -a, -os, as, or the adverb tan… como.
comparativo y superlativo de adjetivos adverbios y nombres 7
Comparativo y superlativo de adjetivos, adverbios y nombres (7)

- ¿Tuhermanahablabien el español?

“Does your sister speak Spanish well?”

- Sí, hablaespañoltan biencomonosotros.

“Yes, she speaks Spanish as well as we do.”

comparativo y superlativo de adjetivos adverbios y nombres 8
Comparativo y superlativo de adjetivos, adverbios y nombres (8)

—Túdas muchas fiestas.

“You give many parties.”

—Sí, pero no doytantas fiestas comoUds.

“Yes, but I don’t give as many parties as you do.”

comparativo y superlativo de adjetivos adverbios y nombres 9
Comparativo y superlativo de adjetivos, adverbios y nombres (9)

The superlative

  • The superlative construction is similar to the comparative. It is formed by placing the definite article before the person or thing being compared.
comparativo y superlativo de adjetivos adverbios y nombres 11
Comparativo y superlativo de adjetivos, adverbios y nombres (11)

—¿Quiénesel estudiantemásinteligente de la clase?

“Who is the most intelligent student in the class?”

—Mario esel másinteligente de todos.

“Mario is the most intelligent of all.”

  • Note that the Spanish de translates to the English in or of after a superlative.
comparativo y superlativo de adjetivos adverbios y nombres 12
Comparativo y superlativo de adjetivos, adverbios y nombres (12)

Irregular comparative forms

  • The following adjectives and adverbs have irregular comparative and superlative forms in Spanish.
comparativo y superlativo de adjetivos adverbios y nombres 13
Comparativo y superlativo de adjetivos, adverbios y nombres (13)
  • When the adjectives grande and pequeño refer to size, the regular comparativeforms are generally used.

Tuclaseesmásgrandeque la de Antonio.

Your class is bigger than Antonio’s.

comparativo y superlativo de adjetivos adverbios y nombres 14
Comparativo y superlativo de adjetivos, adverbios y nombres (14)
  • When these adjectives refer to age, the irregular comparative forms mayorand menor are used.

—¿Felipe esmayor quetú?

“Is Felipe older than you?”

—No, esmenorqueyo.

“No, he’s younger than I (am).”

pronombres usados como complemento de preposici n 1
Pronombresusadoscomocomplemento de preposición (1)
  • The object of a preposition is the noun or pronoun that immediately follows it.

La fiesta esparaMaría (ella).

Ellosvan con nosotros.

pronombres usados como complemento de preposici n 2
Pronombresusadoscomocomplemento de preposición (2)
  • Only the first- and second-persons singular, mí and ti, are different from regular subject pronouns.
  • When used with the preposition con, mí and ti become conmigoand contigo, respectively. The other forms do not combine: con él, con ella, con ustedes, and so on.
pronombres usados como complemento de preposici n 3
Pronombresusadoscomocomplemento de preposición (3)

—¿El café esparamí?

“Is the coffee for me?”

—No, no esparati; esparaél.

“No, it’s not for you; it’s for him.”

pronombres usados como complemento de preposici n 4
Pronombresusadoscomocomplemento de preposición (4)

- ¿Vas a la fiesta conmigo?

“Are you going with me to the party?”

- No, no voycontigo; voy con ellos.  

“No, I’m not going with you; I’m going with them.”