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Prof Darshana Mistry HOD of Computer Department Gandhinagar Institute Of Technology. Core Java. James Gosling and Sun Microsystems Oak Java, May 20, 1995, Sun World HotJava The first Java-enabled Web browser JDK Evolutions

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Prof Darshana Mistry HOD of Computer Department Gandhinagar Institute Of Technology

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James Gosling and Sun Microsystems
  • Oak
  • Java, May 20, 1995, Sun World
  • HotJava
    • The first Java-enabled Web browser
  • JDK Evolutions
  • J2SE, J2ME, and J2EE (not mentioned in the book, but could discuss here optionally)
characteristics of java
Java is simple
  • Java is object-oriented
  • Java is distributed
  • Java is interpreted
  • Java is robust
  • Java is secure
  • Java is architecture-neutral
  • Java is portable
  • Java’s performance
  • Java is multithreaded
  • Java is dynamic
Characteristics of Java
versions of java
Java Language vs Java Platform
    • Current version of the language is 1.4.1
    • Core language plus additional APIs is called the Java 2 platform
    • Three versions of the Java 2 Platform, targetted at different uses
  • Java 2 Micro Edition (J2ME)
    • Very small Java environment for smart cards, pages, phones, and set-top boxes
    • Subset of the standard Java libraries aimed at limited size and processing power
  • Java 2 Standard Edition (J2SE)
    • The basic platform, which this course will cover
  • Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE)
    • For business applications, web services, mission-critical systems
    • Transaction processing, databases, distribution, replication
Versions of Java
the java apis
Sun are constantly adding new features and APIs
  • The Core Java API is now very large
    • Often difficult to keep up with every change
  • Separate set of extension APIs for specific purposes
    • E.g. Telephony, Web applications, Game programming
  • All new developments reviewed through Java Community Process (
    • Chance for developers to provide feedback on emerging standards and APIs
    • Useful to keep an eye on what's coming through
  • Also a wide range of “open source“ APIs available
    • E.g. through the Jakarta project (
The Java APIs
useful resources
Useful resources on the web
  • Java home (
    • Articles, Software and document downloads, Tutorials
  • Java Developer Services
    • Early access downloads, forums, newsletters, bug database
  • Javaworld (
    • Java magazine site, good set of articles and tutorials
  • IBM developerWorks (
    • Technology articles and tutorials
Useful Resources
Java programs are compiled to Bytecode
  • Bytecodeis then interpreted by a JVM, or Java Virtual machine.Thevirtual machine is what runs your program.
  • It’s the JVM that cares about your Operating system, NOT THE PROGRAM!
  • WORA - Write Once, Run Anywhere!

Is Java Interpreted or Compiled?


the virtual machine
Java is both compiled and interpreted
    • Source code is compiled into Java bytecode
    • Which is then interpreted by the Java Virtual Machine (JVM)
    • Therefore bytecode is machine code for the JVM
  • Java bytecode can run on any JVM, on any platform
    • …including mobile phones and other hand-held devices
  • Networking and distribution are core features
    • In other languages these are additional APIs
    • Makes Java very good for building networked applications, server side components, etc.
The Virtual Machine
features of the jvm
The Garbage Collector
    • Java manages memory for you, the developer has no control over the allocation of memory (unlike in C/C++).
    • This is much simpler and more robust (no chance of memory leaks or corruption)
    • Runs in the background and cleans up memory while application is running
  • The Just In Time compiler (JIT)
    • Also known as “Hot Spot”
    • Continually optimises running code to improve performance
    • Can approach the speed of C++ even though its interpreted
Features of the JVM
features of the jvm1
    • Java offers very fine control over what an application is allowed to do
    • E.g. Read/write files, open sockets to remote machines, discover information about the users environment, etc
    • Used in Java Applets to create a “sandbox”. Stops a rogue applet attacking your machine.
    • Makes Java very safe, an important feature in distributed systems
  • Class Loading
    • Loading of bytecode into the virtual machine for execution
    • Code can be read from a local disk, over a network, or the Internet
    • Allows downloading of applications and applets on the fly
    • …and even ‘mobile code’
Features of the JVM

Is Java Object Oriented?


Every bit of code in a Java program is in a “Class”

Code Reuse, Encapsulation, Polymorphism, Inheritance

object oriented programming
Understanding OOP is fundamental to writing good Java applications
    • Improves design of your code
    • Improves understanding of the Java APIs
  • There are several concepts underlying OOP:
    • Abstract Types (Classes)
    • Encapsulation (or Information Hiding)
    • Aggregation
    • Inheritance
    • Polymorphism
Object-Oriented Programming
what is oop
Modelling real-world objects in software
  • Why design applications in this way?
    • We naturally classify objects into different types.
    • By attempting to do this with software aim to make it more maintainable, understandable and easier to reuse
  • In a conventional application we typically:
    • decompose it into a series of functions,
    • define data structures that those functions act upon
    • there is no relationship between the two other than the functions act on the data
What is OOP?
what is oop1
How is OOP different to conventional programming?
    • Decompose the application into abstract data types by identifying some useful entities/abstractions
    • An abstract type is made up of a series of behaviours and the data that those behaviours use.
  • Similar to database modelling, only the types have both behaviour and state (data)
What is OOP?
abstract data types
Identifying abstract types is part of the modelling/design process
    • The types that are useful to model may vary according to the individual application
    • For example a payroll system might need to know about Departments, Employees, Managers, Salaries, etc
    • An E-Commerce application may need to know about Users, Shopping Carts, Products, etc
  • Object-oriented languages provide a way to define abstract data types, and then create objects from them
    • It’s a template (or ‘cookie cutter’) from which we can create new objects
    • For example, a Car class might have attributes of speed, colour, and behaviours of accelerate, brake, etc
    • An individual Car object will have the same behaviours but its own values assigned to the attributes (e.g. 30mph, Red, etc)
Abstract Data Types
The data (state) of an object is private – it cannot be accessed directly.
  • The state can only be changed through its behaviour, otherwise known as its public interface or contract
  • This is called encapsulation
Main benefit of encapsulation
    • Internal state and processes can be changed independently of the public interface
    • Limits the amount of large-scale changes required to a system
what is an oo program
What does an OO program consist of?
    • A series of objects that use each others behaviours in order to carry out some desired functionality
    • When one object invokes some behaviour of another it sends it a message
    • In Java terms it invokes a method of the other object
    • A method is the implementation of a given behaviour.
  • OO programs are intrinsically modular
    • Objects are only related by their public behaviour (methods)
    • Therefore objects can be swapped in and out as required (e.g. for a more efficient version)
    • This is another advantage of OO systems
What is an OO program?
Aggregation is the ability to create new classes out of existing classes
    • Treating them as building blocks or components
  • Aggregation allows reuse of existing code
    • “Holy Grail” of software engineering
  • Two forms of aggregation
  • Whole-Part relationships
    • Car is made of Engine, Chassis, Wheels
  • Containment relationships
    • A Shopping Cart contains several Products
    • A List contains several Items
Inheritance is the ability to define a new class in terms of an existing class
    • The existing class is the parent, base or superclass
    • The new class is the child, derived or subclass
  • The child class inherits all of the attributes and behaviour of its parent class
    • It can then add new attributes or behaviour
    • Or even alter the implementation of existing behaviour
  • Inheritance is therefore another form of code reuse
Means ‘many forms’
  • Difficult to describe, easier to show, so we’ll look at this one in a later lesson
  • In brief though, polymorphism allows two different classes to respond to the same message in different ways
  • E.g. both a Plane and a Car could respond to a ‘turnLeft’ message,
    • however the means of responding to that message (turning wheels, or banking wings) is very different for each.
  • Allows objects to be treated as if they’re identical
a simple application

//This application program prints Welcome

//to Java!


package chapter1;

public class Hello {

public static void main(String[] args) {

System.out.println(“Hello World!");



  • The import statement tells the compiler to make available classes and methods of another package
  • A main method indicates where to begin executing a class (if it is designed to be run as a program)
  • public = can be seen from any package
  • static = not “part of” an object
A Simple Application
creating and compiling programs
On command line

(it produce



Creating and Compiling Programs
executing applications
On command line
    • java classname (Starts the JVM and runs the main method)
Executing Applications

Java Hello

output:...Hello World


Downloading a Java JDK

You want a JDK, not just a JRE

Create a “Temp” directory on your PC or laptop

Go to

Go to the “Popular Downloads” section and select “Java SE”

Select a JDK without Netbeans (We’ll talk about this later)

Agree to the accept the use policy

Right Click and Save the Offline Windows JDK to your temp dir


Installing a Java JDK

Go to your “Temp” dir using Windows Explorer

Make sure no other apps are running and double click the install program you just downloaded. Follow the steps.

I install in C:\Java

Watch fom multiple JREs and JDKs! In Windows the Registry runs the show now, not the JAVA_HOME env variable

Test with a Command Prompt Window and “java –version”

Add C:\Java\”Java ver”\bin to your PATH var

Be sure to add “current directory” to the CLASSPATH (if you had one)


Now, Lets test it

DOS - Command Prompt

Make a directory structure

Type “Edit” and Voila



Create Bytecode ( the *.class file) with “Javac”

Run Program with “Java”


Help on the Web

Got an Error?

Just type it verbatim into Google and you usually can find the answer to your question or solve your problem.

Wikipedia is a good place to get background and history

On anything, and Java is no exception

references and primitive data types
Java distinguishes two kinds of entities
    • Primitive types
    • Objects
  • Primitive-type data is stored in primitive-type variables
  • Reference variables store the address of an object
    • No notion of “object (physically) in the stack”
    • No notion of “object (physically) within an object”
References and Primitive Data Types
primitive data types
Represent numbers, characters, boolean values
  • Integers: byte, short, int, and long
  • Real numbers: float and double
  • Characters: char
Primitive Data Types
subscript [ ], call ( ), member access .
  • pre/post-increment ++ --, boolean complement !, bitwise complement ~, unary + -, type cast (type), object creation new
  • * / %
  • binary + - (+ also concatenates strings)
  • signed shift << >>, unsigned shift >>>
  • comparison < <= > >=, class test instanceof
  • equality comparison == !=
  • bitwise and &
  • bitwise or|
logical (sequential) and &&
  • logical (sequential) or ||
  • conditional cond ? true-expr : false-expr
  • assignment=, compound assignment += -= *= /= <<= >>= >>>= &= |=
type compatibility and conversion
Widening conversion:
    • In operations on mixed-type operands, the numeric type of the smaller range is converted to the numeric type of the larger range
    • In an assignment, a numeric type of smaller range can be assigned to a numeric type of larger range
  • bytetoshorttointtolong
  • intkind tofloattodouble
Type Compatibility and Conversion
declaring and setting variables
int square;

square = n * n;

  • double cube = n * (double)square;
    • Can generally declare local variables where they are initialized
    • All variables get a safe initial value anyway (zero/null)
Declaring and Setting Variables
referencing and creating objects
You can declare reference variables
    • They reference objects of specified types
  • Two reference variables can reference the same object
  • The new operator creates an instance of a class
  • A constructor executes when a new object is created
  • Example: String greeting = ″hello″;
Referencing and Creating Objects
java control statements
A group of statements executed in order is written
    • { stmt1; stmt2; ...; stmtN; }
  • The statements execute in the order 1, 2, ..., N
  • Control statements alter this sequential flow of execution
Java Control Statements
A Java method defines a group of statements as performing a particular operation
  • static indicates a static or class method
  • A method that is not static is an instance method
  • All method arguments are call-by-value
    • Primitive type: value is passed to the method
    • Method may modify local copy but will not affect caller’s value
    • Object reference: address of objectis passed
    • Change to reference variable does not affect caller
    • But operations can affect the object, visible to caller
the class math
The Class Math

Appendix A: Introduction to Java

escape sequences
An escape sequence is a sequence of two characters beginning with the character \
  • A way to represents special characters/symbols
Escape Sequences

Appendix A: Introduction to Java

class declaration
class Circle {

double radius = 1.0;

double findArea(){

return radius * radius * 3.14159;



Class Declaration
creating objects
objectReference = new ClassName();


myCircle = new Circle();

The object reference is assigned to the object reference variable.

Creating Objects
garbage collection
As shown in the previous figure, after the assignment statement c1 = c2, c1 points to the same object referenced by c2. The object previously referenced by c1 is no longer useful. This object is known as garbage. Garbage is automatically collected by JVM. Garbage Collection
garbage collection cont
TIP: If you know that an object is no longer needed, you can explicitly assign null to a reference variable for the object. The Java VM will automatically collect the space if the object is not referenced by any variable.Garbage Collection, cont
accessing objects
Referencing the object’s data:


  • Invoking the object’s method:



Accessing Objects
Circle(double r) {

radius = r;


Circle() {

radius = 1.0;


myCircle = new Circle(5.0);

Constructors are a special kind of methods that are invoked to construct objects.

constructors cont

A constructor with no parameters is referred to as a default constructor.

·Constructors must have the same name as the class itself.

·Constructors do not have a return type—not even void.

·Constructors are invoked using the new operator when an object is created. Constructors play the role of initializing objects.

Constructors, cont.
visibility modifiers and accessor methods
By default, the class, variable, or data can beaccessed by any class in the same package.
  • public

The class, data, or method is visible to any class in any package.

  • private

The data or methods can be accessed only by the declaring class.

The get and set methods are used to read and modify private properties.

Visibility Modifiers and Accessor Methods
scope of variables
The scope of instance and class variables is the entire class. They can be declared anywhere inside a class.
  • The scope of a local variable starts from its declaration and continues to the end of the block that contains the variable. A local variable must be declared before it can be used.
Scope of Variables
the keyword this
Use this to refer to the current object.
  • Use this to invoke other constructors of the object.
The Keyword this
array of objects
Circle[] circleArray = new Circle[10];

An array of objects is actually an array of reference variables. So invoking circleArray[1].findArea() involves two levels of referencing as shown in the next figure. circleArray references to the entire array. circleArray[1] references to a Circle object.

Array of Objects
class abstraction
Class abstraction means to separate class implementation from the use of the class. The creator of the class provides a description of the class and let the user know how the class can be used. The user of the class does not need to know how the class is implemented. The detail of implementation is encapsulated and hidden from the user. Class Abstraction
java api and core java classes

Contains core Java classes, such as numeric classes, strings, and objects. This package is implicitly imported to every Java program.

  • java.awt

Contains classes for graphics.

  • java.applet

Contains classes for supporting applets.

Java API and Core Java classes

Java API and Core Java classes, cont.

  • java.awt.image

Contains classes for managing bitmap images.

  • java.awt.peer

Platform-specific GUI implementation.

  • Others:




Java is interpreted and compiled language.

  • Java is fully object oriented and machine independent language.