Global GeoSpace Imaging on PCW
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Global GeoSpace Imaging on PCW MTR. Eric Donovan and Emma Spanswick. ●. ●. ●. Auroral acceleration WP Interactions Reconnection BBF CD Instability Injection MHD Waves Gravity Waves Joule Heating Sudden Impulse. Plasmasphere Thermosphere Mesosphere Ionosphere Atmosphere

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Eric donovan and emma spanswick

Global GeoSpace Imaging on PCW

MTR

Eric Donovan and Emma Spanswick


Eric donovan and emma spanswick

Auroral acceleration

WP Interactions

Reconnection

BBF

CD Instability

Injection

MHD Waves

Gravity Waves

Joule Heating

Sudden Impulse

Plasmasphere

Thermosphere

Mesosphere

Ionosphere

Atmosphere

Ring Current

Plasma Sheet

Radiation Belt

Solar Radiation

Energetic Particles

Solar Wind




Eric donovan and emma spanswick

40 years of global imaging has taken us to….

some spectral resolution

~100 km of kilometre spatial resolution (plus no contemporaneous smaller-scale imaging)

30 – 120 second temporal resolution

time limited image sequences (10 hours or less)

serendipitous conjugate imaging

There are compelling scientific reasons for wanting to do better….

PCW is a unique opportunity to move forward in a dramatic way.

The combination of the orbits, Nadir-pointing, and advances in imaging technology set the stage for (by far) the best space-based auroral imaging in history. This will even allow for systematic conjugate imaging in partnership with KuaFu, and will enable Canada to take a world-leading role in GeoSpace at the “System Level”.


Eric donovan and emma spanswick

Science/Space Weather Objectives

Magnetospheric drivers of auroral type, structure, and dynamics: e.g., What causes auroral arcs? What causes diffuse aurora? What are the ionospheric signatures of dynamic geospace events (e.g., reconnection).

Geospace Dynamic Coupling e.g., how does O+ of ionospheric origin affect geospace dynamics during (e.g.,) storms? What is the role of the substorm in the storm? How do dayside conditions determine if reconnection is steady or bursty? How does the CPS stage plasma for injection into the inner magnetosphere?

Space weather affects on climate: e.g., How does auroral precipitation affect NOx and Ozone?

Space weather affects on GNSS: e.g., Develop and provide real-time assessment of space weather affects on GPS accuracy at high latitudes.


Eric donovan and emma spanswick

Proposal – take advantage of the best geospace imaging platform in history, flown at the same time as MMS, CrossScale, RBSP, BARREL, etc. Fly…

Primary: Molniya UltraViolet Imager (MUVI)

Nice to have: Energetic Neutral Atom Imager

Molniya X-ray Imager (MOXI)

Spectroscopic Imager (SI)

EUV Imager

Partner: Change KuaFu to a single solar/solar wind satellite; Support EAGLES.

Budget: $10M-50M

This builds on Canada’s history of space- and ground-based auroral imaging. Groundwork has been done during the CSA funded Ravens Concept Studies. This draws on established partnerships.



Eric donovan and emma spanswick

Ravens: Spacecraft 1 (red) & 2 (blue) and both (black)

perfect

great

good

bad

awful

Note: combined FOV of both spacecraft is always “better than good”, and often better than possible with one spacecraft. End-to-end viewing of the storm possible.


Eric donovan and emma spanswick

[Assessing] User Needs

Canadian Space Environment Community LTSP Roadmap (2009)

NASA Heliophysics Roadmap (2009)

US Decadal Survey

Letters of Support

Mission planning documents (RBSP, MMS, KuaFu, etc.)

Community consultation (DASP, Chapman Conferene, etc.)


Eric donovan and emma spanswick

Linkage to Canadian Science Objectives

[2009] Canadian Space Environment Community LTSP Roadmap

What Physical processes control the space environment?

What role does cross-scale coupling play in space environment dynamics?

How are mass, energy, and momentum transported through space environments?

How does structure arise in space plasmas?

What are the physical processes that couple magnetospheres, ionospheres, and atmospheres?

What physical processes cause terrestrial and planetary aurora?

What plasma processes [sic] cause acceleration/loss of energetic particles in space environments?

How does the Sun affect space environments?

Outcomes and performance goals

Be an internationally recognized contributor of forefront knowledge of the space environments around the Earth and other solar-system bodies in which Canada has an interest. This outcome is measured in the quantity and quality of scientific publications, and frequency at which Canadian data are used in the scientific literature. Our performance goal is to rank among the top 3 in the world in terms of per-capita publication and data use.

Be an internationally respected contributor of space environment missions and/or instruments enabling such missions. This outcome is measured in the number of successfully implemented space environment experiments (including suborbital experiments). Our performance goal is to rank among the top 3 in the world in terms of such experiments on a per-capita basis.



Eric donovan and emma spanswick

10.4. A workshop focusing on Kuafu B scientific objectives (From KuaFu Workshop Report by W. Liu)

KuaFu is a three-satellite mission aimed at fundamental understanding of solar, solar wind, and geospace processes which form and control space weather.

KuaFu scientific objectives were to be met through two sets of observations: 1) multi-channel imaging of the Sun and in-situ observation of the solar wind performed at the first Lagrange point (Kuafu A); 2) 24/7 global auroral, and ENA imaging, and supporting in-situ observations, performed by two properly phased satellites in a large polar elliptical orbit (Kuafu B). Thus combined, Kuafu would blaze the trail of system-level study of the Sun-Earth System.

As currently envisioned, Kuafu A would be developed and flown by the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2015. The Kuafu team is of the unanimous opinion that the PCW satellites under development in Canada would have an orbit ideally suited to KuaFu B objectives, and its planned timeline would ensure a multi-year overlap with KuaFu A. Further, the PCW satellites would be three-axis stabilized, and thus provide a significantly better platform for remote sensing, particularly for global auroral imaging.

The KuaFu team urges CSA to explore using spare capacity on PCW to fly instruments to achieve some of the highest priority KuaFu B observations. The Kuafu team notes that there is presently a prolonged gap in global, high-resolution auroral imaging, and 24/7 auroral coverage envisioned by Kuafu B has never been realized before. It further considers that simultaneous FUV global auroral imaging represents a bare minimum for assessing the system-level geoeffectiveness of the solar and solar wind dynamics that will be observed by KuaFu A. As a consequence, the Kuafu team recommends 10 km nadir resolution as a key observational target, in order to resolve how turbulent plasma transport in the magnetosphere results in auroral arcs, and how the instability manifested in arc breakup trigger global storms in geospace.


Eric donovan and emma spanswick

CDRL – Page 22 (From KuaFu Workshop Report by W. Liu)


Eric donovan and emma spanswick

GeoSpace imaging on PWC would…. (From KuaFu Workshop Report by W. Liu)

  • provide the only global imaging in the mission timeframe

  • deliver technical firsts (24/7, spatial resolution, etc)

  • provide the best global scale auroral imaging to date

  • deliver numerous scientific firsts

  • synergy with all ILWS GeoSpace projects/obs.

  • synergy with all Canadian GeoSpace projects/obs.

  • provide essential input to space weather applications

  • motivate significant technological advances

  • provide years of visually stunning EPO material

  • enhance Canada’s Space Science profile

  • enhance Canada’s Arctic profile

  • take maximum advantage of the PCW orbit/platform


Eric donovan and emma spanswick

Thank You (From KuaFu Workshop Report by W. Liu)


Eric donovan and emma spanswick

Extra Slides (From KuaFu Workshop Report by W. Liu)


Eric donovan and emma spanswick

Available spatial resolution (From KuaFu Workshop Report by W. Liu): the resolution of a uniform rectangular grid used to map POLAR UVI images taken from spacecraft altitudes above 6Re.


Eric donovan and emma spanswick

Auroral Imaging from PCW (From KuaFu Workshop Report by W. Liu)


Eric donovan and emma spanswick

Relevance to other programs - ISRs (From KuaFu Workshop Report by W. Liu)


Eric donovan and emma spanswick

SuperDARN (From KuaFu Workshop Report by W. Liu)


Eric donovan and emma spanswick

Magnetometer Arrays (From KuaFu Workshop Report by W. Liu)


Eric donovan and emma spanswick

Space Weather Applications (From KuaFu Workshop Report by W. Liu)

The arctic presents special challenges to GNSS due to ionospheric irregularities which cause position errors of tens of meters (well beyond error bounds for marine and aviation applications, for example). The large-scale scintillation regions can be thousands of kilometers in extent. PCW MUVI imaging will be used to provide RT information on the location of the ionospheric disturbances and upper bounds of GNSS error to specific users.