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Unit 8 Week 5 Dr.Mohammed Hassan. Drugs acting on the CNSII. Al-Hamadi , Drugs acting on the CNSII . 4medstudents.com 2003. Drugs acting on the CNS 2 . Parkinson ’ s disease epilepsy. Parkinson ’ s Disease. Definition: Progressive neurological disorder of muscle movement. Symptoms:

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drugs acting on the cnsii

Unit 8

Week 5

Dr.Mohammed Hassan

Drugs acting on the CNSII

Al-Hamadi , Drugs acting on the CNSII. 4medstudents.com 2003

drugs acting on the cns 2
Drugs acting on the CNS 2
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • epilepsy
parkinson s disease
Parkinson’s Disease
  • Definition:
    • Progressive neurological disorder of muscle movement.
  • Symptoms:
    • Tremor
    • Muscular rigidity
    • Bradykinesia
    • Postural abnormalities
  • Aetiology:
    • Reduction in the activity of inhibitory dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and corpus striatum.
parkinson s disease4
Parkinson’s Disease:
  • Drugs used in the treatment Parkinson’s

Dopamine Dopamine inhibit Dopamine increase dopamine Anti- Precursor Agonist metabolism release cholinergic

dopamine precursors
Dopamine Precursors
  • Levadopa (L-Dopa)
    • Matabolic precursor of dopamine
    • Cross blood brain barrier
    • Required in high doses because the drug is decarboxylated to dopamine in the periphery.
  • Carbidopa:
    • Enhance the effect of L-Dopa by diminishing its metabolism in the GI tract and peripheral tissues.
  • Action
  • Decreases the rigidity, tremors and other symptoms of parkinsonism
  • Therapeutic uses
    • Parkinson's disease
dopamine precursors6
Dopamine Precursors
  • Adverse effects:
    • Peripheral effects:
      • Nausea, vomiting, tachycardia and hypotension
    • CNS effects:
      • Visual and auditory hallucination
  • Precautions:
    • Vitamin B6 increase the peripheral breakdown of L-dopa.
    • Hypertensive crisis caused by increased in catecholamine production
    • glaucoma caused by increased in intraocular pressure
    • Cardiac patients may develop arrhythmias
    • Antipsychotic drugs produce parkinsonian syndrome themselves

Goodbye dopamine precursors

welcome dopamine agonist drugs
Welcomedopamine agonist drugs
  • Bromocriptine
    • A lot of side effects
      • Hallucinations
      • Confusion
      • Nausea
      • hypotension

Goodbye Bromocarptine

dopamine metabolism inhibitors
Dopamine metabolism inhibitors:
  • Inhibit the metabolism of dopamine, therefore increase its level
    • Selgiline

Goodbye Selgiline

drugs that increase dopamine release
Drugs that increase dopamine release:
  • Amantadine:
    • Increase the synthesis, release or reuptake of dopamine from surviving neurons
    • Adverse effects:
      • Restlessness
      • Confusion
      • Hallucination
      • Hypotesion
      • Dry mouth

Goodbye Amantadine

welcome anti muscarinic drugs
Welcome Anti-Muscarinic Drugs:
  • Benzotropine:
    • Induce visual problems and mood changes
  • Adverse effects:
    • Pupillary dilatation
    • Confusion
    • Hallucination
    • Urinary retention
    • Dry mouth

Goodbye Parkinson's Disease

epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs
Epilepsy and Antiepileptic drugs
  • epilepsy:
    • Definition:
      • Family of different recurrent seizure disorders that have in common the sudden, excessive and disorderly discharge of cerebral neurons.
    • Etiology:
      • Unknown cause in (80%)
      • 20% due to
        • Infection
        • Malformation
        • Hyperkalemia
        • Decrease the activity of inhibitory system
        • Increase the activity of excitatory system
antiepileptic drugs
Antiepileptic drugs
  • Phenytoin
  • Carbamazepine
  • Phenobarbital
  • Valproic acid
  • ethosuximide
welcome phenytoin
Welcome (Phenytoin)
  • Actions:
    • Stabilizes neural membranes by decreasing the flux of sodium ions in neurons in the resting state or during depolarization.
  • Therapeutic uses:
    • Only for epilepsy

Goodbye Phenytoin

welcome carbamazepine
Welcome (Carbamazepine)
  • Actions:
    • Reduce the propagation of normal impulses in the brain by blocking sodium channels..
  • Therapeutic uses:
    • Epilepsy and pain

Goodbye Carbamazepine

welcome phenobarbital
Welcome (Phenobarbital)
  • Actions:
    • Potentiation of the inhibitory effect of GABE mediated neuron.
  • Therapeutic uses:
    • Epilepsy

Goodbye Phenobarbital

welcome valproic acid
Welcome (Valproic acid)
  • Actions:
    • Enhance GABA action at inhibitory synapses
  • Therapeutic uses:
    • Epilepsy

Goodbye Valproic acid

welcome ethosuximide
Welcome (Ethosuximide)
  • Actions:
    • Reduce prepagation of abnormal electric activity in the brain
  • Therapeutic uses:
    • Epilepsy

Goodbye Ethosuximide

antiepileptic drugs18
AntiEpileptic Drugs
  • Adverse effects:
    • Hypotension
    • Sedation
    • Confusion
    • Muscle problem
    • neurotoxicity