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ETAAC Energy Sector. Energy Storage ------------------------ Smart Grid July 12, 2007 San Francisco, CA. Energy Storage. Electric energy storage goal of the industry

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Etaac energy sector

ETAACEnergy Sector

Energy Storage

------------------------

Smart Grid

July 12, 2007

San Francisco, CA


Energy storage
Energy Storage

  • Electric energy storage goal of the industry

  • Cost-effective energy storage would benefit all areas of the energy value chain: generation, transmission, distribution, and end-use

  • Key applications: firming large penetration of intermittent renewables, grid support, end-use load shifting, etc.

  • Current energy storage systems are only marginally cost competitive. Costs need to come down by factor of 2-5 times.

  • Need innovation and standardization as well as policy recognition.

  • California is best market for accelerating storage use due to technology base, clean energy emphasis (especially intermittent renewables), and leading-edge policies.


Energy storage technologies
Energy Storage Technologies

  • Many different energy storage technologies are available for use in storage for renewable integration applications

  • Lithium ion batteries

  • Sodium-Sulfur Batteries

  • Flow Batteries

  • Flywheels

  • Ultracapacitors

  • Pumped Hydro

  • Compressed Air Energy Storage

  • Lead-acid batteries

  • Nickel-cadmium batteries

  • Each technology has advantages and disadvantages

  • Not all of these technologies are appropriate for all applications



MW

Upward Regulation

Real Time Load

Real-Time Economic Dispatch

Every 5 minutes

Incremental Energy

Decremental Energy

Hour Ahead Schedule

  • Ancillary Services

  • Regulation

  • Spinning Reserve

  • Non-Spinning Reserve

  • Replacement Reserve

  • Voltage Support

  • Black Start capability

Downward Regulation

Day Ahead Schedule

Time

Balancing Function - Area Control


Loads resources
Loads & Resources

Source: CEC PIER-funded study by GE Energy, July 2006

Temporal Pattern: July 2003 Average Day


July 2006 heat wave peak hours wind generation energy production

New Records

July 17:

(2:41 pm) 46,561 MW

July 21:

(4:28 pm) 49,036 MW

July 24:

(2:44 pm) 50,270 MW

Record

Planned Capacity Level

x

x

x

Time of Record Peaks

Source: CAISO

July 2006 Heat Wave – Peak Hours Wind Generation Energy Production




Plug hybrid electric vehicles complement renewables

45 Error and Frequency Control

Vehicle-to-grid energy (V2G)

40

Typical Load

Load w/ 4 mil. PHEVs

35

System Load (GW)

Off-peak load

30

25

Ancillary Services available when vehicles are parked

20

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Plug Hybrid Electric Vehicles Complement Renewables

off-peak load

AM PM


Dispatchability option via thermal storage
Dispatchability Option via Thermal Storage Error and Frequency Control

Solar thermal can add storage or to become more dispatchable.

Actual September day w/ supplemental gas

Actual June day

Actual September day

Parabolic Trough Solar Technology for Utility Power Markets in the Southwestern United States, Henry Price, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, August 2004


Next Gen Flow Battery? Error and Frequency Control

Next Gen Li-ion?


Compressed air energy storage caes
Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Error and Frequency Control


Caes geology by state
CAES Geology by State Error and Frequency Control


Lithium ion battery
Lithium Ion Battery Error and Frequency Control


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