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Acids & Bases. They are everywhere.. In your food In your house EVEN IN YOU!!!!!. What is an acid?. An acid is a solution that has an excess of H + ions. It comes from the Latin word acidus that means "sharp" or "sour". The more H + ions, the more acidic the solution.

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acids bases

Acids & Bases

They are everywhere..

In your food

In your house

EVEN IN YOU!!!!!

what is an acid
What is an acid?
  • An acid is a solution that has an excess of H+ ions. It comes from the Latin word acidus that means "sharp" or "sour".
  • The more H+ ions, the more acidic the solution.
properties of acids
Properties of Acids
  • Taste sour
  • Conduct electricity
  • Corrosive, which means they break down certain substances. Many acids can corrode fabric, skin, and paper

Picture from BBC Revision Bites http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks3bitesize/science/chemistry/acids_bases_1.shtml

properties of acids1
Properties of Acids
  • Some acids react strongly with metals and form hydrogen gas
  • React with bases to form salts and water
  • Turn blue litmus paper red

Picture from BBC Revision Bites http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks3bitesize/science/chemistry/acids_bases_1.shtml

uses of acids
Uses of Acids
  • Acetic acid - vinegar
  • Citric acid - lemons, limes, & oranges.
  • Ascorbic acid - Vitamin C which your body needs to function.
  • Sulfuric acid is used in the production of fertilizers, steel, paints, plastics, and in car batteries.
  • Hydrochloric acid – stomach acid
what is a base
What is a base?
  • A base is a solution that has an excess of OH- ions.
  • Another word for base is alkali.
properties of a base
Properties of a Base
  • Feel slippery
  • Taste bitter
  • Caustic, which means they break down certain substances.
  • Conduct electricity. (Think alkaline batteries.)
properties of a base1
Properties of a Base
  • Do not react with metals.
  • React with acids to produce salts and water.
  • Turns red litmus paper blue.
uses of bases
Uses of Bases
  • Bases – found in soaps, ammonia, and many other cleaning products.
  • The OH- ions interact strongly with substances, such as dirt and grease.
  • Chalk and oven cleaner contain bases.
  • Blood is a basic solution.
acids and bases electrical conductors
Acids and Bases – electrical conductors
  • Acids and bases both can conduct electricity because both contain ions
  • Ionic solutions are electrolytes - any substance containing free ions that make the substance electrically conductive
ph scale
pH Scale
  • pH is a measure of how acidic or basic a solution is.
  • The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14.
  • Acidic solutions have pH values below 7
  • Solutions with a pH of 0 are very acidic.
ph scale1
pH Scale
  • A solution with a pH of 7 is neutral.
  • Pure water has a pH of 7.
  • Basic solutions have pH values above 7.
  • Solutions with a pH of 14 are very basic
slide13

pH Scale

  • A change of 1 pH unit represents a tenfold change in the acidity of the solution.
slide14

pH Scale

  • For example, if one solution has a pH of 1 and a second solution has a pH of 2, the first solution is not twice as acidic as the second—it is ten times more acidic.
weak vs strong acids
Weak vs. Strong Acids
  • Strong acids ionize completely when placed in water. HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, HClO4, HI, HBr
  • HCl H+ + Cl-
  • Weak acids do not ionize completely, they remain mostly intact and release fewer H+ ions
  • CH3COOH ↔CH3COO- + H+
weak vs strong baces
Weak vs. Strong Baces
  • Strong bases ionize completely when placed in water. NaOH, LiOH, Be(OH)2, Mg(OH)2
  • Mg(OH)2 Mg2+ + 2(OH)-
  • Strong bases remove more H+ ions when they are mixed with water (the OH- ions react with the H + ions)
  • Weak bases do not ionize completely, they remain mostly intact and release fewer OH- ions and remove fewer H+ ions when they are mixed with water
  • NH3 + H2O ↔NH4+ + OH-
acid base reactions
Acid – Base Reactions
  • A reaction between an acid and a base is called neutralization. An acid-base mixture is not as acidic or basic as the individual starting solutions.
acids and bases react to form salts
Acids and Bases react to form salts
  • When an acid and a base react, H+ ions and OH- ions react to produce water and decrease the concentration of H+ ions
  • The anions and cations that were connected with the H+ ions and OH- ions react to form salts.
  • NaOH + HCl Na+ + Cl- + H+ + OH-
  • NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2O
acid base reactions1
Acid – Base reactions
  • Each salt listed in this table can be formed by the reaction between an acid and a base.
  • Salts are very important chemicals
serial dilution
Serial Dilution
  • Serial dilution is the stepwise dilution of a substance in solution.