Solar vicinity close by young isolated nss and tests of cooling curves
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Solar vicinity, close-by young isolated NSs, and tests of cooling curves. Sergei Popov (Sternberg Astronomical Institute) Co-authors: H.Grigorian, R. Turolla, D. Blaschke. ECT*, Trento, September 14, 2005. Plan of the talk. Intro. Close-by NSs Age-Distance diagram Solar vicinity. Stars

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Solar vicinity close by young isolated nss and tests of cooling curves

Solar vicinity, close-by young isolated NSs,and tests of cooling curves

Sergei Popov

(Sternberg Astronomical Institute)

Co-authors: H.Grigorian, R. Turolla, D. Blaschke

ECT*, Trento, September 14, 2005


Plan of the talk
Plan of the talk

  • Intro. Close-by NSs

  • Age-Distance diagram

  • Solar vicinity. Stars

  • Spatial distribution

  • Mass spectrum

  • Two tests of cooling

  • Brightness constraint

  • Sensitivity of two tests

  • Final conclusions


Isolated neutron stars population in the galaxy and at the backyard
Isolated neutron stars population: in the Galaxy and at the backyard

  • INSs appear in many flavours

    • Radio pulsars

    • AXPs

    • SGRs

    • CCOs

    • RINSs

Note a recent discovery

by Lyne et al. (submited

to Nature, see later)

  • Local population of young NSs

    is different (selection)

    • Radio pulsars

    • Geminga+

    • RINSs


Close by radioquiet nss
Close-by radioquiet NSs

  • Discovery: Walter et al. (1996)

  • Proper motion and distance: Kaplan et al.

  • No pulsations

  • Thermal spectrum

  • Later on: six brothers

RX J1856.5-3754


Magnificent seven
Magnificent Seven

Radioquiet (?)

Close-by

Thermal emission

Long periods


Population of close by young nss
Population of close-by young NSs

  • Magnificent seven

  • Geminga and 3EG J1853+5918

  • Four radio pulsars with thermal emission (B0833-45; B0656+14; B1055-52; B1929+10)

  • Seven older radio pulsars, without detected thermal emission.


Age distance diagram
Age-distance diagram

A toy-model: a local

sphere (R=300 pc)

and a flat disk.

Rate of NS formation

in the sphere is

235 Myr-1 kpc-3

(26-27 NS in Myr in

the whole sphere).

Rate in the disc is

10 Myr-1 kpc-2

(280 NS in Myr up to

3 kpc).

(astro-ph/0407370)


More realistic age dist diagram
More realistic age-dist. diagram

Initial distribution

from Popov et al. 2005.

Spatial evolution is not

followed.

For the line of “visibility”

(solid line in the middle)

I assume the limiting

flux 10-12 erg s-1 cm-2

and masses are <1.35

(Yakovlev et al. curves).


Realistic age distance diagram
Realistic age-distance diagram

Realistic initial distribution.

Spatial evolution is taken

into account.

The line of “visibility” is

drawn as the dotted line.

Five curves correspond to

1, 4 , 13, 20 and 100 NSs.


Solar vicinity
Solar vicinity

  • Solar neighborhood is not a typical region of our Galaxy

  • Gould Belt

  • R=300-500 pc

  • Age: 30-50 Myrs

  • 20-30 SN per Myr (Grenier 2000)

  • The Local Bubble

  • Up to six SN in a few Myrs


The gould belt
The Gould Belt

  • Poppel (1997)

  • R=300 – 500 pc

  • Age 30-50 Myrs

  • Center at 150 pc from the Sun

  • Inclined respect to the galactic plane at 20 degrees

  • 2/3 massive stars in 600 pc belong to the Belt


Distribution of open clusters
Distribution of open clusters

(Piskunov et al. astro-ph/0508575)



Spatial distribution of close by open clusters in 3d
Spatial distribution of close-by open clusters in 3D

Grey contours show

projected density

distribution of young

(log T<7.9) clusters.

(Piskunov et al.)


Clusters and absorption
Clusters and absorption

Triangles –

Gould Belt clusters.

(Piskunov et al.)


Spatial distribution
Spatial distribution

More than ½ are in

+/- 12 degrees from

the galactic plane.

19% outside +/- 30o

12% outside +/- 40o

(Popov et al. 2005

Ap&SS 299, 117)

Lyne et al. reported transient dim radio sources with possible periods

about seconds in the galactic plane discovered in the Parkes survey

(talk by A. Lyne in Amsterdam, august 2005; subm. to Nature).

Shall we expect also Lyne’s objects from the Belt????

YES!!! And they even have to be brighter (as they are closer).

The problem – low dispersion.


Mass spectrum of nss
Mass spectrum of NSs

  • Mass spectrum of local young NSs can be different from the general one (in the Galaxy)

  • Hipparcos data on near-by massive stars

  • Progenitor vs NS mass: Timmes et al. (1996); Woosley et al. (2002)

(masses of secondary objects in NS+NS)

astro-ph/0305599


Two tests
Two tests

Age – Temperature

&

Log N – Log S


Standard test temperature vs age
Standard test: temperature vs. age

Kaminker et al. (2001)


Log n log s
Log N – Log S

calculations

-3/2 sphere:

number ~ r3

flux ~ r-2

Log of the number of sources

brighter than the given flux

-1 disc:

number ~ r2

flux ~ r-2

Log of flux (or number counts)


Log n log s as an additional test
Log N – Log S as an additional test

  • Standard test: Age – Temperature

    • Sensitive to ages <105 years

    • Uncertain age and temperature

    • Non-uniform sample

  • Log N – Log S

    • Sensitive to ages >105 years

      (when applied to close-by NSs)

    • Definite N (number) and S (flux)

    • Uniform sample

  • Two test are perfect together!!!

astro-ph/0411618


List of models blaschke et al 2004

Model I. Yes C A

Model II. No D B

Model III. Yes C B

Model IV. No C B

Model V. Yes D B

Model VI. No E B

Model VII. Yes C B’

Model VIII.Yes C B’’

Model IX. No C A

Blaschke et al. used 16 sets of cooling curves.

They were different in three main respects:

Absence or presence of pion condensate

Different gaps for superfluid protons and neutrons

Different Ts-Tin

List of models (Blaschke et al. 2004)

Pions Crust Gaps


Model i
Model I

  • Pions.

  • Gaps from Takatsuka & Tamagaki (2004)

  • Ts-Tin from Blaschke, Grigorian, Voskresenky (2004)

Can reproduce observed Log N – Log S


Model ii
Model II

  • No Pions

  • Gaps from Yakovlev et al. (2004), 3P2 neutron gap suppressed by 0.1

  • Ts-Tin from Tsuruta (1979)

Cannot reproduce observed Log N – Log S


Model iii
Model III

  • Pions

  • Gaps from Yakovlev et al. (2004), 3P2 neutron gap suppressed by 0.1

  • Ts-Tin from Blaschke, Grigorian, Voskresenky (2004)

Cannot reproduce observed Log N – Log S


Model iv
Model IV

  • No Pions

  • Gaps from Yakovlev et al. (2004), 3P2 neutron gap suppressed by 0.1

  • Ts-Tin from Blaschke, Grigorian, Voskresenky (2004)

Cannot reproduce observed Log N – Log S


Model v
Model V

  • Pions

  • Gaps from Yakovlev et al. (2004), 3P2 neutron gap suppressed by 0.1

  • Ts-Tin from Tsuruta (1979)

Cannot reproduce observed Log N – Log S


Model vi
Model VI

  • No Pions

  • Gaps from Yakovlev et al. (2004), 3P2 neutron gap suppressed by 0.1

  • Ts-Tin from Yakovlev et al. (2004)

Cannot reproduce observed Log N – Log S


Model vii
Model VII

  • Pions

  • Gaps from Yakovlev et al. (2004), 3P2 neutron gap suppressed by 0.1.

    1P0 proton gap suppressed by 0.5

  • Ts-Tin from Blaschke, Grigorian, Voskresenky (2004)

Cannot reproduce observed Log N – Log S


Model viii
Model VIII

  • Pions

  • Gaps from Yakovlev et al. (2004), 3P2 neutron gap suppressed by 0.1. 1P0 proton gap suppressed by 0.2 and 1P0 neutron gap suppressed by 0.5.

  • Ts-Tin from Blaschke, Grigorian, Voskresenky (2004)

Can reproduce observed Log N – Log S


Model ix
Model IX

  • No Pions

  • Gaps from Takatsuka & Tamagaki (2004)

  • Ts-Tin from Blaschke, Grigorian, Voskresenky (2004)

Can reproduce observed Log N – Log S


Solar vicinity close by young isolated nss and tests of cooling curves

HOORAY!!!!

Log N – Log S can select models!!!!!

Only three (or even one!) passed the second test!

…….still………… is it possible just to update

the temperature-age test???

May be Log N – Log S is not necessary?

Let’s try!!!!


Brightness constraint
Brightness constraint

  • Effects of the crust (envelope)

  • Fitting the crust it is possible to fulfill the T-t test …

  • …but not the second test: Log N – Log S !!!

(H. Grigorian astro-ph/0507052)


Sensitivity of log n log s
Sensitivity of Log N – Log S

  • Log N – Log S is very sensitive to gaps

  • Log N – Log S is not sensitive to the crust if it is applied to relatively old objects (>104-5 yrs)

  • Log N – Log S is not very sensitive to presence or absence of pions

Model I (YCA) Model II (NDB) Model III (YCB)

Model IV (NCB) Model V (YDB) Model VI (NEB)

Model VII(YCB’) Model VIII (YCB’’) Model IX (NCA)

We conclude that the two test complement each other



Resume
Resume

  • We live in a very interesting region of the Milky Way!

  • Log N – Log S test can include NSs with

    unknown ages, so additional sources

    (like the Magnificent Seven) can be used

    to test cooling curves

  • Two tests (LogN–LogS and Age-Temperature) are perfect together.


Radio detection
Radio detection

Malofeev et al. (2005) reported detection of

1RXS J1308.6+212708 (RBS 1223)

in the low-frequency band (60-110 MHz)

with the radio telescope in Pushchino.

(back)


Evolution of ns spin magnetic field
Evolution of NS: spin + magnetic field

Ejector → Propeller → Accretor → Georotator

1 – spin-down

2 – passage through a molecular cloud

3 – magnetic field decay

astro-ph/0101031

Lipunov (1992)


Model i1
Model I

  • Pions.

  • Gaps from Takatsuka & Tamagaki (2004)

  • Ts-Tin from Blaschke, Grigorian, Voskresenky (2004)

Can reproduce observed Log N – Log S

(back)


Model ix1
Model IX

  • No Pions

  • Gaps from Takatsuka & Tamagaki (2004)

  • Ts-Tin from Blaschke, Grigorian, Voskresenky (2004)

Can reproduce observed Log N – Log S

(back)


Model iii1
Model III

  • Pions

  • Gaps from Yakovlev et al. (2004), 3P2 neutron gap suppressed by 0.1

  • Ts-Tin from Blaschke, Grigorian, Voskresenky (2004)

Cannot reproduce observed Log N – Log S

(back)


Model ii1
Model II

  • No Pions

  • Gaps from Yakovlev et al. (2004), 3P2 neutron gap suppressed by 0.1

  • Ts-Tin from Tsuruta (1979)

Cannot reproduce observed Log N – Log S

(back)


Model iv1
Model IV

  • No Pions

  • Gaps from Yakovlev et al. (2004), 3P2 neutron gap suppressed by 0.1

  • Ts-Tin from Blaschke, Grigorian, Voskresenky (2004)

Cannot reproduce observed Log N – Log S

(back)


Model v1
Model V

  • Pions

  • Gaps from Yakovlev et al. (2004), 3P2 neutron gap suppressed by 0.1

  • Ts-Tin from Tsuruta (1979)

Cannot reproduce observed Log N – Log S

(back)


Model vi1
Model VI

  • No Pions

  • Gaps from Yakovlev et al. (2004), 3P2 neutron gap suppressed by 0.1

  • Ts-Tin from Yakovlev et al. (2004)

Cannot reproduce observed Log N – Log S

(back)


Model vii1
Model VII

  • Pions

  • Gaps from Yakovlev et al. (2004), 3P2 neutron gap suppressed by 0.1.

    1P0 proton gap suppressed by 0.5

  • Ts-Tin from Blaschke, Grigorian, Voskresenky (2004)

Cannot reproduce observed Log N – Log S

(back)


Model viii1
Model VIII

  • Pions

  • Gaps from Yakovlev et al. (2004), 3P2 neutron gap suppressed by 0.1. 1P0 proton gap suppressed by 0.2 and 1P0 neutron gap suppressed by 0.5.

  • Ts-Tin from Blaschke, Grigorian, Voskresenky (2004)

Can reproduce observed Log N – Log S

(back)


Ns ns binaries
NS+NS binaries

Pulsar Pulsar mass Companion mass

B1913+16 1.44 1.39

B2127+11C 1.35 1.36

B1534+12 1.33 1.35

J0737-3039 1.34 1.25

J1756-2251 1.40 1.18

(PSR+companion)/2

J1518+4904 1.35

J1811-1736 1.30

J1829+2456 1.25

(David Nice, talk at Vancouver)

(Back)


P pdot for new transient sources
P-Pdot for new transient sources

Lyne et al. 2005

Submitted to Nature

(I’m thankful to

Prof. Lyne for giving

me an opportunity

to have a picture

in advance)

Estimates show that

there should be about

400 000

sources of this type

in the Galaxy

(back)