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Television debate : Appearance versus substance Television ads: campaign spending $ Main Issues: “missile gap” religion Close election results. Significances of the 1960 Nixon Kennedy Campaign. Nixon/ Kennedy debate. Inauguration Speech. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xE0iPY7XGBo

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Significances of the 1960 nixon kennedy campaign

Television debate : Appearance versus substance

Television ads: campaign spending $

Main Issues:

“missile gap”

religion

Close election results

Significances of the 1960 Nixon Kennedy Campaign

Nixon/ Kennedy debate


Inauguration speech
Inauguration Speech

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xE0iPY7XGBo

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3s6U8GActdQ&NR=1





Kennedy s charisma

“…Our faith in him and in what he was trying to do was absolute, and he could impart to our work together a sense of challenge and adventure-a feeling that he was moving, and the world with him, toward a better time.” Pierre Salinger, Press Secretary

Glencoe text p. 842

Kennedy’s Charisma:


New frontier goals

Increase aid to education absolute, and he could impart to our work together a sense of challenge and adventure-a feeling that he was moving, and the world with him, toward a better time.” Pierre Salinger, Press Secretary

Provide health insurance to the elderly

Create Dept. of Urban Affairs

Help Migrant Workers

“New Frontier” Goals


Kennedy s critics

Despite Democratic large majorities in House and Senate, Kennedy could not pass his New Frontier legislation.

WHY?

Kennedy’s Critics:


Kennedy s critics1

Despite Democratic large majorities in House and Senate, Kennedy could not pass his New Frontier legislation.

WHY?

Kennedy’s Critics:


Kennedy s critics2

Congress could follow their own interest: Kennedy could not pass his New Frontier legislation.

“A good many [congressional representatives] were elected in 1960 in spite of his presence on the ticket rather than because his name was there.” Congressional Democrat

US News & World Report

Kennedy’s Critics


Kennedy s critics3

Republicans and Southern Democrats viewed Kennedy could not pass his New Frontier legislation.

New Frontier too costly

Kennedy’s Critics

Southern Democrats controlled Congress


Kennedy the pragmatist

Minor deficit spending Kennedy could not pass his New Frontier legislation.

Increased funding for defense and space exploration

Supported supply-side economics and tax cuts

“A rising tide lifts all boats.”

Congress denied tax cuts out of fear of inflation

Kennedy: the Pragmatist


Kennedy the pragmatist1

Less of Ike’s “brinkmanship” and more Kennedy could not pass his New Frontier legislation.

“flexible response”

more conventional troops and weapons

Support of Special Forces

“Green Berets”

Kennedy: the Pragmatist

http://www.specialoperations.com/Army/Special_Forces/SF_Info/Story.htm

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lwKYXRLP0rY


A marshall plan for latin america

Poverty and corruption in Latin America Kennedy could not pass his New Frontier legislation.

Kennedy wants to thwart communist expansion in Latin America

Alliance for Progress

$20 billion aid for better schools, housing and health care

Designed to counter leftist movements

Chile, Colombia, Venezeula, and Central America benefited

A “Marshall Plan” for Latin America?


Kennedy s enduring legacy the peace corps

Helping the people of interested countries in meeting their needs for trained men and women.

Helping promote a better understanding of Americans on the part of the peoples served.

Helping promote a better understanding of other peoples on the part of all Americans.

http://www.jfklibrary.org/Historical+Resources/JFK+in+History/Peace+Corps.htm

http://www.peacecorps.gov/

Kennedy’s Enduring Legacy: The Peace Corps


The space race man on the moon

http://www.nootrope.net/kennedy.html needs for trained men and women.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e08r5IRTbjE

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ND4kDezFUk8

The Space Race: “man on the moon”


1960's needs for trained men and women.

  • U2 INCIDENT

  • BAY OF PIGS INVASION

  • BERLIN WALL CONSTRUCTED

  • CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS

  • ALLIANCE FOR PROGRESS AND THE THIRD WORLD, THE PEACE CORPS

  • U.S. INCREASES INVOLVEMENT IN VIETNAM

  • NUCLEAR TEST BAN TREATY

  • 1960s TIMELINES


MAY 1960: THE U-2 INCIDENT needs for trained men and women.

A US U-2 RECONNAISSANCE (SPY) PLANE WAS SHOT DOWN OVER THE SOVIET UNION AND ITS PILOT GARY POWERS CAPTURED AND PUT ON TRIAL. KHRUSHCHEV USED THIS INCIDENT TO CANCEL A PLANNED EAST-WEST SUMMIT CONFERENCE IN PARIS.


JOHN F. KENNEDY BECOMES PRESIDENT OF THE US IN 1961 AND INHERITS A PLANED INVASION OF CUBA FROM THE EISENHOWER ADMINISTRATION


1960 - ALL US BUSINESSES IN CUBA ARE NATIONALIZED (TAKEN OVER BY THE CUBAN GOVERNMENT) WITHOUT COMPENSATION. THE US BREAKS OFF DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS WITH CUBA AND SEES CASTRO AS AN ENEMY OF THE US.

EISENHOWER AGREES TO A CIA PLAN FOR AN EXILE INVASION OF CUBA TO OVERTHROW CASTRO IN MARCH OF 1960



THE INVASION WAS A FAILURE AND ALL THE CUBAN EXILE INVASION FORCE WAS EITHER KILLED OR CAPTURED BY CASTRO’S ARMY.

CASTRO’S FORCES ON THE MARCH

CASTRO’S AIR FORCE DESTROYED THE INVADING SHIPS


RELATIONS BETWEEN THE TWO SUPER POWERS WORSEN AFTER THE VIENNA SUMMIT IN JUNE OF 1961.

KHRUSHCHEV THREATENS JFK WITH AN ULTIMATUM ON BERLIN. JFK RESPONDS WITH A US MILITARY BUILD-UP AND A US CIVIL DEFENSE PROGRAM


TENSIONS RISE DURING THE REMAINDER OF1961. ON AUGUST 13 VIENNA SUMMIT IN JUNE OF 1961.th EAST GERMANY BEGINS PREPARING FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE BERLIN WALL AND ON SEPTEMBER 1 THE USSR RESUMES ATMOSPHERIC TESTING OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS


IN JUNE OF 1963 PRESIDENT KENNEDY WENT TO BERLIN AND DELIVERED HIS FAMOUS “ICH BIN EIN BERLINER” ( I AM A BERLINER) TO SHOW U.S. DETERMINATION TO KEEP BERLIN FREE.


CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS DELIVERED HIS FAMOUS “ICH BIN EIN BERLINER” ( I AM A BERLINER) TO SHOW U.S. DETERMINATION TO KEEP BERLIN FREE.

AUGUST TO NOVEMBER 1962

THE CLOSEST THE WORLD HAS COME TO FULL SCALE NUCLEAR WAR


US INTELLIGENCE BEGINS RECEIVING REPORTS OF SOVIET MISSILES IN CUBA. A U-2 FLIGHT ON AUGUST 29TH CONFIRMED THE PRESENCE OF SURFACE TO AIR MISSILE BATTERIES IN CUBA. THESE MISSILES WERE DESIGNED TO SHOOT DOWN ENEMY AIRCRAFT.



DECLASSIFIED 1962 MAP SHOWING THE DISTANCES NUCLEAR ARMED MISSILES WOULD GO IF FIRED FROM CUBA. ALMOST ALL MAJOR US POPULATION CENTERS WERE WITHIN RANGE. MAPS LIKE THIS CONVINCED JFK THAT THE SOVIET MISSILES MUST BE REMOVED FROM CUBA.


AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS FROM U.S. SPY PLANES LEFT NO DOUBT THAT THE RUSSIANS WERE INSTALLING NUCLEAR MISSILES IN CUBA AIMED AT THE U.S.


LOW ALTITUDE VIEW OF MISSILE PREPARATION AREA. THE PILOT TAKING THIS SHOT FLEW AT AN ALTITUDE OF ABOUT 250 FEET, AND AT THE SPEED OF SOUND.

EACH ONE OF THE RUSSIAN MISSILES IN CUBA HAD THE EXPLOSIVE POWER OF 50 HIROSHIMA TYPE ATOMIC BOMBS


SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ROBERT Mc NAMARA, SECRETARY OF STATE DEAN RUSK AND JFK, THE MAIN POLICY MAKERS DURING THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS ALONG WITH ROBERT KENNEDY.


JFK HAD TWO CHOICES OF HOW TO DEAL WITH THE SITUATION IN CUBA:

FIRST: HE COULD ORDER AIRSTRIKES ON THE MISSILE SITES IN CUBA AND RISK AN ALL OUT NUCLEAR WAR WITH THE USSR

SECOND: HE COULD ORDER A NAVAL BLOCKADE AND STOP SOVIET SHIPS FROM BRINGING IN MISSILES AND OTHER EQUIPMENT. NO ONE KNEW HOW THE RUSSIANS WOULD REACT TO THIS.

HE CHOSE THE NAVAL BLOCKADE


Bay of pigs cuba april 17 1961

CIA trained 1,400 Cuban Exiles CUBA:

Kennedy cancelled air support

Cubans did not rise up in support of exiles

Castro personally led defense of island

1,189 captured/100 killed

US paid $53 in food and medicine for their release

Bay of Pigs, Cuba: April 17, 1961

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/bay-of-pigs/kennedy-2506-flag.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/baypigs.htm&h=580&w=743&sz=149&hl=en&start=5&um=1&tbnid=EaDthiYRThqXLM:&tbnh=110&tbnw=141&prev=/imag



OCTOBER 27, 1962: THE SOVIET SHIP GROZNY CROSSES THE QUARANTINE LINE, BUT STOPS AFTER U.S. NAVY SHIPS FIRE STAR SHELLS ACROSS HER BOW.

PHOTOS OF US SHIPS ENFORCNG THE QUARANTINE AND (LEFT) SHADOWING A SOVIET SUBMARINE


  KHRUSHCHEV GAVE IN TO US PRESSURE AND REMOVED SOVIET MISSILES FROM CUBA FOR A US PROMISE NOT TO INVADE CUBA.

MISSILES BEING LOADED ON SOVIET SHIPS FOR RETURN TO THE SOVIET UNION

SOVIET CARGO SHIP LEAVING CUBA WITH MISSILES VISIBLE ABOVE THE DESK



ALLIANCE FOR PROGRESS UNITED NATIONS IN NOVEMBER 1962.

“THEREFORE I HAVE CALLED ON ALL PEOPLE OF THE HEMISPHERE TO JOIN IN A NEW ALLIANCE FOR PROGRESS -- ALIANZA PARA PROGRESO -- A VAST COOPERATIVE EFFORT, UNPARALLELED IN MAGNITUDE AND NOBILITY OF PURPOSE TO SATISFY THE BASIC NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE FOR HOMES, WORK AND LAND, HEALTH AND SCHOOLS - TECHO, TRABAJO Y TIERRA, SALUD Y ESCUELA.”

JOHN F. KENNEDY, MARCH 13, 1961

PRESIDENT AND MRS. KENNEDY CONGRATULATE THE SON OF A NEW HOME OWNER AT LA MORITA RESETTLEMENT PROJECT NEAR CARACAS, VENEZUELA.


IN HIS INAUGURAL ADDRESS OF JANUARY 20, 1961, PRESIDENT JOHN F. KENNEDY CHALLENGES A NEW GENERATION OF AMERICANS TO JOIN "...A GRAND AND GLOBAL ALLIANCE...TO FIGHT TYRANNY, POVERTY, DISEASE, AND WAR..." KENNEDY CONTINUES IN HIS SPEECH, "TO THOSE PEOPLE IN THE HUTS AND VILLAGES ACROSS THE GLOBE STRUGGLING TO BREAK THE BONDS OF MASS MISERY, WE PLEDGE OUR BEST EFFORTS TO HELP THEM HELP THEMSELVES."


A NATIONAL NIGHTMARE BEGINS: JFK AND THE ORIGINS OF THE VIETNAM WAR

PRESIDENT HO CHI MINH,DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF VIET NAM

PRESIDENT NGO DINH DIEMREPUBLIC OF VIET NAM


THE US SUPPORTED A CATHOLIC, NGO DINH DIEM, WHO WAS HATED BY THE MAJORITY OF THE SOUTH VIETNAMESE WHO WERE BUDDHIST. HIS MISRULE LED TO A SMALL REBELLION WHICH GREW INTO A MAJOR WAR IN THE EARLY 1960’S. PRESIDENT EISENHOWER SENT A SMALL TRAINING UNIT TO HELP BUILD DIEM’S ARMY IN 1955.

PRESIDENT OF SOUTH VIETNAM NGO DINH DIEM, LEFT, IS WELCOMED IN CEREMONIES AT WASHINGTON NATIONAL AIRPORT. WITH HIM IS PRESIDENT DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER, AND BEHIND THEM, FROM LEFT, AIR FORCE CHIEF OF STAFF GENERAL NATHAN TWINING, SECRETARY OF STATE JOHN FOSTER DULLES, AND PRESIDENTIAL AIDE AND PILOT, COLONEL WILLIAM C. DRAPER. 05/08/1957


US ARMY ADVISORS TRAINING SOUTH VIETNAMESE SOLDIERS IN 1961-62

BOTH KOREA AND VIETNAM WERE PRODUCTS OF THE U.S. DOMINO THEORY :THE IDEA THAT COUNTRIES BORDERING COMMUNIST COUNTRIES WERE IN MORE DANGER OF FALLING TO COMMUNISM UNLESS THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER WESTERN NATIONS WORKED TO PREVENT IT.


THE NATIONAL LIBERATION FRONT (NLF) WAS ORGANIZED IN 1960 BY ANTI-DIEM GROUPS. IT WAS CONTROLLED BY FORMER COMMUNIST VIETMINH CADRES WHO HAD FOUGHT AGAINST THE FRENCH. THE NLF WAS ULTIMATELY CONTROLLED BY THE NORTH VIETNAMESE.

EISENHOWER’S MILITARY ADVISORY AND ASSISTANCE GROUP WAS REPLACE BY MACV (MILITARY ASSISTANCE COMMAND VIETNAM) UNDER THE COMMAND OF GENERAL PAUL HARKINS. OVER 11,000 ADVISORS WITH MODERN WEAPONS AND AIRCRAFT WERE SENT TO HELP THE SOUTH VIETNAMESE GOVERNMENT. THE NUMBER GROWS TO 16,000 BY NOV. 1963.

NLF FLAG

MACV HEADQUARTERS BUILDING IN SAIGON


GENERAL HARKINS’ OVERLY OPTIMISTIC REPORTS LED TO A CONFUSED UNDERSTANDING OF THE TRUE SITUATION IN SOUTH VIETNAM: THE SOUTH VIETNAMESE ARMY WAS NOT FIGHTING WITH ANY SPIRIT OR SKILL AND WOULD LOSE WITHOUT A MASSIVE US TROOP DEPLOYMENT

"BY CHRISTMAS IT WILL BE ALL OVER.” (AMERICAN GENERAL PAUL HARKINS, APRIL 1963). BUT IT WASN’T OVER UNTIL 1975 WHEN THE COMMUNISTS WON AND TOOK CONTROL OF SOUTH VIETNAM


VIETNAM 1962 CONFUSED UNDERSTANDING OF THE TRUE SITUATION IN SOUTH VIETNAM: THE SOUTH VIETNAMESE ARMY WAS NOT FIGHTING WITH ANY SPIRIT OR SKILL AND WOULD LOSE WITHOUT A MASSIVE US TROOP DEPLOYMENT

STRATEGIC HAMLETS: OPERATION SUNRISE

VIETNAMESE PEASANTS WERE FORCED TO BUILD AND MOVE INTO THESE FORTIFIED VILLAGES TO PREVENT CONTACT WITH COMMUNIST VIETCONG GUERRILLAS. 6800 WERE BUILT BY 1963. THEY WERE UNPOPULAR WITH THE VIETNAMESE PEOPLE AND THIS ALONG WITH OTHER ABUSES BY THE SOUTH VIETNAMESE SAIGON GOVERNMENT CAUSED MANY TO SUPPORT THE COMMUNISTS.


HUNDREDS OF BLOCKHOUSE STRONG POINTS WERE BUILT THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRYSIDE TO “PROTECT” THE PEASANTS FROM THE VC. THESE WERE EQUIPPED WITH THOUSANDS OF RIFLES AND MACHINE GUNS MOST OF WHICH ENDED UP IN THE HANDS OF THE VC TO BE USED AGAINST THE SOUTH VIETNAMESE AND AMERICANS


THE BATTLE OF AP BAC THE COUNTRYSIDE TO “PROTECT” THE PEASANTS FROM THE VC. THESE WERE EQUIPPED WITH THOUSANDS OF RIFLES AND MACHINE GUNS MOST OF WHICH ENDED UP IN THE HANDS OF THE VC TO BE USED AGAINST THE SOUTH VIETNAMESE AND AMERICANS

NEW PHASE OF THE VIETNAM WAR: ON JANUARY 2ND 1963, 340 VIET CONG GUERRILLAS HELD OFF THE COMBINED ASSAULTS OF MORE THAN 1500 SOUTH VIETNAMESE GOVERNMENT TROOPS NEAR THE SMALL VILLAGE OF AP BAC. SHOOTING DOWN FIVE AMERICAN HELICOPTERS AND WITHSTANDING M113 ARMORED PERSONNEL CARRIERS, INFANTRY, ARTILLERY, AND CLOSE AIR SUPPORT, THE VC WITHDREW IN GOOD ORDER WITH FEW CASUALTIES, MUCH TO THE AMERICAN ADVISORS’ FRUSTRATIONS. AP BAC’S WARNING SIGNS, WHILE UNDERSTOOD BY THE LOWER-LEVEL ADVISORS AND THE PRESS, WERE LOST ON THE SENIOR AMERICAN CIVIL AND MILITARY LEADERSHIP. THE SOUTH VIETNAMESE ARMY WOULD NOT FIGHT SO WAS IT WORTH THE LIVES OF AMERICAN SOLDIERS TO DEFEND THEIR NATION WHEN THEY THEMSELVES WOULDN’T?

MODERN VIETNAM MONUMENT TO THE COMMUNIST VICTORS OF THE BATTLE OF AP BAC.


AIR STRIKE BEFORE THE SOUTH VIETNAMESE TROOPS ARE THE COUNTRYSIDE TO “PROTECT” THE PEASANTS FROM THE VC. THESE WERE EQUIPPED WITH THOUSANDS OF RIFLES AND MACHINE GUNS MOST OF WHICH ENDED UP IN THE HANDS OF THE VC TO BE USED AGAINST THE SOUTH VIETNAMESE AND AMERICANSLANDED

LANDING TROOPS BY HELICOPTER

PHOTOS OF THE BATTLE OF AP BAC TAKEN BY STEVE STIBBENS (http://www.stibbens.com/war.htm). USED WITH PERMISSION


AP BAC PHOTOS PAGE TWO THE COUNTRYSIDE TO “PROTECT” THE PEASANTS FROM THE VC. THESE WERE EQUIPPED WITH THOUSANDS OF RIFLES AND MACHINE GUNS MOST OF WHICH ENDED UP IN THE HANDS OF THE VC TO BE USED AGAINST THE SOUTH VIETNAMESE AND AMERICANS

THREE US HELICOPTERS SHOT DOWN BY VC FIRE

AP BAC VILLAGE WITH THE THREE DOWNED HELICOPTERS AND THEIR US CREWS

BODIES OF US HELICOPTER PILOTS AND CREW BEING SHIPPED HOME WITH MILITARY HONORS


PRESIDENT KENNEDY, TO AVOID BEING ACCUSED OF “LOSING SOUTH VIETNAM” AS PRESIDENT TRUMAN WAS ACCUSED OF “LOSING CHINA”, INCREASED THE NUMBER OF MILITARY ADVISORS FROM 800 TO 16,000 AND FORMED THE GREEN BERETS SPECIAL FORCES. TO PROTEST THE CATHOLIC DIEM’S ATTACKS ON BUDDHIST PAGODAS, BUDDHIST PRIESTS SET FIRE TO THEMSELVES IN PROTEST. THE US DECIDED THAT DIEM'S MURDEROUS REGIME WAS TOO UNPOPULAR AND SUPPORTED AN ARMY COUP THAT KILLED DIEM. PRESIDENT KENNEDY WAS ASSASSINATED A FEW WEEKS LATER IN DALLAS.

VIETNAMESE BUDDHIST MONKS SET THEMSELVES ON FIRE TO PROTEST THE BRUTAL DIEM REGIME.


Berlin wall june 1961
Berlin Wall June 1961 VIETNAM” AS PRESIDENT TRUMAN WAS ACCUSED OF “LOSING CHINA”, INCREASED THE NUMBER OF MILITARY ADVISORS FROM 800 TO 16,000 AND FORMED THE GREEN BERETS SPECIAL FORCES. TO PROTEST THE CATHOLIC DIEM’S ATTACKS ON BUDDHIST PAGODAS, BUDDHIST PRIESTS SET FIRE TO THEMSELVES IN PROTEST. THE US DECIDED THAT DIEM'S MURDEROUS REGIME WAS TOO UNPOPULAR AND SUPPORTED AN ARMY COUP THAT KILLED DIEM. PRESIDENT KENNEDY WAS ASSASSINATED A FEW WEEKS LATER IN DALLAS.

http://www.dailysoft.com/berlinwall/photographs/berlinwall-1961.htm

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ARQ4EDKlQ0k


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l2ZyeG4tdOQ VIETNAM” AS PRESIDENT TRUMAN WAS ACCUSED OF “LOSING CHINA”, INCREASED THE NUMBER OF MILITARY ADVISORS FROM 800 TO 16,000 AND FORMED THE GREEN BERETS SPECIAL FORCES. TO PROTEST THE CATHOLIC DIEM’S ATTACKS ON BUDDHIST PAGODAS, BUDDHIST PRIESTS SET FIRE TO THEMSELVES IN PROTEST. THE US DECIDED THAT DIEM'S MURDEROUS REGIME WAS TOO UNPOPULAR AND SUPPORTED AN ARMY COUP THAT KILLED DIEM. PRESIDENT KENNEDY WAS ASSASSINATED A FEW WEEKS LATER IN DALLAS.

http://library.thinkquest.org/11046/


Warren court
Warren Court VIETNAM” AS PRESIDENT TRUMAN WAS ACCUSED OF “LOSING CHINA”, INCREASED THE NUMBER OF MILITARY ADVISORS FROM 800 TO 16,000 AND FORMED THE GREEN BERETS SPECIAL FORCES. TO PROTEST THE CATHOLIC DIEM’S ATTACKS ON BUDDHIST PAGODAS, BUDDHIST PRIESTS SET FIRE TO THEMSELVES IN PROTEST. THE US DECIDED THAT DIEM'S MURDEROUS REGIME WAS TOO UNPOPULAR AND SUPPORTED AN ARMY COUP THAT KILLED DIEM. PRESIDENT KENNEDY WAS ASSASSINATED A FEW WEEKS LATER IN DALLAS.


Jfk assassination

On 22 November 1963 the world was stunned to learn that Kennedy had been shot to death as he rode in a motorcade in Dallas, Texas. Within hours of Kennedy's shooting, the Dallas police arrested his alleged assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, a mysterious, twenty-four-year-old ex-Marine who had lived in the Soviet Union, brought home a Russian wife, and sympathized with Castro. He was unfortunately never brought to trial because two days after his arrest, in full view of a national television audience, he was shot and killed in the basement of the Dallas police headquarters by Jack Ruby, a Dallas nightclub owner who reportedly was grief-stricken over Kennedy's assassination.

Less than a year later, a presidential commission headed by Chief Justice Earl Warren concluded that Oswald had acted alone in killing Kennedy, that Oswald had not been part of a conspiracy. But from the time of the assassination itself, a significant part of the public was incredulous at the thought of a lone assassin, and the Warren Commission's findings and methods were subjected to endless second-guessing. In 1979 a special congressional investigation concluded that it was probable that more than one person was involved in Kennedy's assassination, though it was unable to identify anyone besides Oswald or to determine the nature and extent of the conspiracy.

JFK Assassination


1960 Kennedy had been shot to death as he rode in a motorcade in Dallas, Texas. Within hours of Kennedy's shooting, the Dallas police arrested his alleged assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, a mysterious, twenty-four-year-old ex-Marine who had lived in the Soviet Union, brought home a Russian wife, and sympathized with Castro. He was unfortunately never brought to trial because two days after his arrest, in full view of a national television audience, he was shot and killed in the basement of the Dallas police headquarters by Jack Ruby, a Dallas nightclub owner who reportedly was grief-stricken over Kennedy's assassination.

March: Cuban exiles: Eisenhower agrees to CIA proposal to train Cuban exiles to subvert Castro regime.May 1: U-2 reconnaissance plane shot down over central U.S.S.R. Pilot Gary Powers is held by the Soviet Union. Incident is announced by Khrushchev on May 5.May 16: East-West summit conference in Paris collapses over U-2 incident.August 19: U-2 pilot Gary Powers sentenced by the U.S.S.R. to ten years in prison; he is exchanged for a Soviet spy in 1961.November 8: Kennedy elected president.December 20: Ho Chi Minh, leader of the Republic of Vietnam, organizes the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLF). Ho commits the NLF to the overthrow of the U.S.-supported Ngo Dinh Diem regime, the ouster of U.S. advisers, and the unification of Vietnam.

1961

January 3: Cuba: Eisenhower Administration breaks diplomatic relations with Cuba.January 17: Eisenhower's farewell address warns of potential "unwarranted influence ... by the military-industrial complex."January 20: John F. Kennedy inaugurated.March 13: Alliance for Progress, a 10-year plan of economic aid to Latin American is proposed by Kennedy.April 17: Bay of Pigs landing by more than 1,000 CIA-trained Cuban refugees fails in its attempt to "liberate" Cuba.May 11: Kennedy authorizes American advisors to aid South Vietnam, against the forces of North Vietnam.June 3: Vienna Summit: Khrushchev reissues ultimatum to begin talks on Germany within 6 months or face a permanent the division of Germany. Kennedy responds with call for military build-up, beginning of civil defense program.August 13: East Germany closes the Brandenburg Gate, sealing the border between East and West Berlin in preparation for building the Berlin Wall.September 1: Soviet Union resumes atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons.September 15: United States resumes underground testing of nuclear weapons.


1962 Kennedy had been shot to death as he rode in a motorcade in Dallas, Texas. Within hours of Kennedy's shooting, the Dallas police arrested his alleged assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, a mysterious, twenty-four-year-old ex-Marine who had lived in the Soviet Union, brought home a Russian wife, and sympathized with Castro. He was unfortunately never brought to trial because two days after his arrest, in full view of a national television audience, he was shot and killed in the basement of the Dallas police headquarters by Jack Ruby, a Dallas nightclub owner who reportedly was grief-stricken over Kennedy's assassination.

January 29: East-West Conference on Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests, begun in October 1958, collapses in deadlock at Geneva.April 25: United States resumes atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons.October 23: Cuban Missile Crisis United States establishes air and sea blockade of Cuba in response to photographs of Soviet missile bases under construction in Cuba. United States threatens to invade Cuba if the bases are not dismantled and warns that a nuclear attack launched from Cuba would be considered a Soviet attack requiring full retaliation.October 28: Khrushchev agrees to remove offensive weapons from Cuba and the United States agrees to remove missiles from Turkey and end Cuban-exile incursions.November 21: United States ends Cuban blockade, satisfied that all bases are removed and Soviet jets will leave the island by December 20.

1963

June 26: Kennedy visits Berlin, declares "Ich bin ein Berliner."June 10: Kennedy, in speech at American University, calls for reconsideration of Cold War as "holy war."June 20: "Hot Line" established, a direct teletype link between the White House and the Kremlin, to start service August 30.October 7: Kennedy signs Limited Test Ban Treaty Britain, Soviet Union, and United States agree to outlaw tests in the atmosphere, under water, and in outer space.November 1: South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem is assassinated.November 22: President Kennedy is assassinated.