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8/7/13. Turn in Syllabus in class box Pick up notes from front table Be ready to start when the bell rings. Methods of Science. Chapter 1.3 pages 16-21. Scientific method : steps used to gather data and answer questions . Scientific Method.

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8 7 13
8/7/13
  • Turn in Syllabus in class box
  • Pick up notes from front table
  • Be ready to start when the bell rings
methods of science

Methods of Science

Chapter 1.3 pages 16-21

scientific method
Scientific Method
  • The scientific method generally follows a pattern:
    • Ask a question
    • Make observations
    • Form a Hypothesis
    • Experiment
    • Collect and analyze data
    • Draw conclusions
ask a question
Ask A Question
  • Scientific inquiry begins with observation, observation is the act of noting or perceiving objects or events using the 5 senses
  • Combining your observation with your past knowledge allows you to make inferences, or logical conclusions.
observation vs inferences
Observation vs.Inferences
  • Inferences are an explanation for a observation that you have made.
  • Inferences often change when new observations are made.

Observation: The grass is wet

Inferences: it rained

the sprinklers went off

hypothesis
Hypothesis
  • a hypothesis is a TESTABLE explanation for your question.
    • this statement can be tested by additional observations or experimentation
    • an educated guess based on what is already know
    • Usually written as a if then

statement

experiment
Experiment
  • experiment – a planned procedure to test a hypothesis
  • controlled experiment – an experiment where an experimentalgroup is compared to a controlgroup
    • control group is a group in an experiment that receives no experimental treatment
    • An experimental group is the group exposed to the factor being tested
experimental design
Experimental Design
  • Both control and experimental groups are designed to be identical except for one variable
  • Variables - factors, conditions, and/or relationships that can change or be changed in an event or system
three kinds of variables in a scientific investigation
Three kinds of variables in a scientific investigation:
  • the factor that is varied/changedin an experiment is called the independent variable
  • the variable that is measured in an experiment is called the dependent variable
  • a constant is a factor that remains fixed during an experiment
memory trick
Memory Trick

D

R

Y

M

I

X

Dependent

Responding

Y-axis

Manipulated

Independent

X-axis

What were the independent and dependent variables for our paper towel lab?

slide12

Identifying and Manipulating Variables

Example: A student wanted to test how the mass

of a paper airplane affected the distance it

would fly. Paper clips were added before each

test flight. As each paper clip was added, the

plane was tested to determine how far it would

fly.

  • independent variable – the mass of the
  • plane/number of paper clips added
  • dependent variable – the distance flown
  • controlled variable – the fact that the same plane
  • was used for each trial.
collect and analyze data
Collect and Analyze Data
  • Data is any information gained from observations.
  • 2 types:
      • Quantitative – measureable or countable
          • 3 meters long
          • 4 marbles
          • 50 kilograms
          • 35 degrees Celsius
      • Qualitative– describable, not measureable
          • red flowers
          • smells like fresh baked cookies
          • Tastes bitter
collect and analyze data1
Collect and Analyze Data
  • A graph of the data makes the pattern easier to grasp.
  • On a graph, the x axis represents the independent variable
  • the y axis represents the dependent variable
slide15

Identify the independent and dependent variables

in each example below and label the graph:

2. I have 3 different types of

paper towels; I think type A

will hold the most water.

  • Human heart rate will
  • increase from sitting
  • to standing.

amt of

water

heart rate

body position

type of paper

towel

3. Adding sugar to water will

increase the temperature

at which water boils.

4. The warmer an egg,

the faster it will open.

time

temp

temp

amt of sugar

conclusion
Conclusion
  • once data are collected and analyzed, a hypothesis is either supported or rejected
  • even when a hypothesis has not been supported, it is valuable.
  • a hypothesis can be supported, but never proven because another experiment with new data can alter the conclusion.
  • Publication
    • scientists often publish the results of their experiments for review and use by other scientists