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Introducing words: a few instructional strategies. Why? What? How? York Professional Development Day 1.17.11. Facets of Purposeful Vocabulary Instruction. Provide rich and varied language experiences discussion, focused attention on words, being read to, wide and frequent reading

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introducing words a few instructional strategies

Introducing words:a few instructional strategies

Why? What? How?

York Professional Development Day

1.17.11

facets of purposeful vocabulary instruction
Facets ofPurposeful Vocabulary Instruction
  • Provide rich and varied language experiences
    • discussion, focused attention on words, being read to, wide and frequent reading
  • Teach word-learning strategies
    • Using context, using morphology (word parts), using a dictionary
  • Foster word consciousness
    • Awareness, interest in words and their meanings, understanding of communicative power of language
  • Teach individual words

(Graves, 2006)

effective vocabulary instruction
Effective Vocabulary Instruction
  • Vocabulary instruction should focus on critical words
  • Effective vocabulary instruction does not rely on definitions.
  • Teaching word parts enhances understanding.
  • Different types of words require different types of instruction.
  • Active engagement improves learning.
  • Repeated exposure is essential.
criteria to consider
Word Knowledge

prior knowledge

necessary understanding

Relationship to other important words

morphological (word parts)

semantic (categories of meaning)

Frequency & Distribution

rate of occurrence in English text

Utility

instructional potential

outside of particular school context

generativity

Importance

reading comprehension (particular selection, general comprehension)

content-specific achievement

Conceptual difficulty

Criteria to Consider
questions worth asking
Questions Worth Asking
  • Is this word unknown?
  • Is this word critical to understanding (the particular text, the particular subject matter)?
  • Is this a word students are likely to encounter again (in sophisticated language use, in this particular subject, in other domains)?
  • Is this word conceptually difficult (abstract, new concept, multiple meanings)?
  • Does this word have high instructional potential (morphology, connections to other words, word learning)?
slide8

“Often, it will be necessary to teach words in ways that do not consume large amounts of time and do not produce the strongest possible results…

graves 2006 p 70

…In these cases, think of your initial instruction on a word as just that—initial instruction, an initial experience that starts students on the long road to learning a full and rich meaning for the word.”

(Graves, 2006, p. 70)

quick introduction
Quick Introduction
  • Learning new words for known concepts in text
    • During read-aloud
    • Before students read text
  • Read-aloud
    • Provide known synonym/descriptive phrase after the word (without disrupting the narration)
  • Prior to student reading
    • Display or quick note with target word and known synonym/descriptive phrase
    • Preview descriptions provided in textbooks (supplement as necessary)
reception check
Reception Check

Full Bars…Decent Reception…Dropped Call?

introducing specific words
Introducing Specific Words
  • Student Friendly Explanations
    • Characterize word and typical use
    • Explain meaning in everyday language
  • Teacher-Created Contexts
    • Develop instructional contexts that provide strong clues to meaning
  • Active Engagement with Words
    • Short, playful, lively opportunities for students to interact with words and meanings right away

(Beck et al. 2002 in Diamond & Gutlohn, 2006)

student friendly explanations
Student Friendly Explanations
  • Consider resist
    • Dictionary: “to withstand the force or the effect of”
    • Student-friendly: “when a person struggles or fights not to give in to something”
  • Write a student-friendly explanation for one word you teach.
teacher created contexts
Teacher-Created Contexts
  • Consider convey
    • Literary Context: “Of the Right Whale, the best outline pictures are in Scoresby; but they are drawn on too small a scale to convey a desirable impression” (Melville, Moby Dick).
    • Teacher Created: The speaker was successful in conveying his main ideas to the audience. They all understood what he said, and most agreed with him…
  • Write a few sentences using your word in context to clarify meaning.
active engagement with words check for understanding review
Active Engagement with WordsCheck for Understanding, Review
  • Consider interior
  • Questions
    • Jake thought it would be fun to explore the interior of Alaska. Why might you want to spend time in the interior of Nebraska?
  • Example or Non-example?
    • Which tells about the interior of Oregon?
      • On their vacation, the family visited a lake in central Oregon.
      • On their vacation, the family visited the beaches and coast of Oregon?
  • Finish the idea
    • After a trip to the coast, we headed to the interior of the country because _____.
  • Have you ever…?
    • Can you describe a place you know about that is located in the interior of Nebraska?
  • Choices
    • If what I say could be in the interior of a big island, say “interior”…
      • A mountain
      • An ocean beach
active engagement with words check for understanding review1
Active Engagement with WordsCheck for Understanding, Review
  • Consider interior
  • Questions
    • Jake thought it would be fun to explore the interior of Alaska. Why might you want to spend time in the interior of Nebraska?
  • Finish the idea
    • After a trip to the coast, we headed to the interior of the country because _____.
  • Have you ever…?
    • Can you describe a place you know about that is located in the interior of Nebraska?
example or non example
Example or Non-Example?
  • Which tells about the interior of Oregon?

(“interior” or “NOT!”)

    • On their vacation, the family visited a lake in central Oregon.
    • On their vacation, the family visited the beaches and coast of Oregon?
making choices
Making Choices
  • If what I say could be in the interior of a big island, say “interior”…
    • A mountain
    • An ocean beach
making choices1
Making Choices

leisurely or in a hurry?

  • Taking a walk in the park
  • Firefighters getting to a fire
  • Runners in a race
  • Sitting and talking to friends
  • A dog lying in the sun

T-P-S: Think of more situations that sound leisurely.

(Beck, McKeown, Kucan, 2002, p. 57)

making choices2
Making Choices
  • glimpse scrutinize
    • Which can you do more quickly?
  • inspector spectator
    • What would you probably call every person watching a football game?
  • largo ritardando
    • Which tells me to slow down gradually?

(Beck, McKeown, Kucan, 2002, p. 80-81)

making distinctions
Making Distinctions
  • Would you pay homage to something tolerable?
  • Would you suppress a profound thought?
  • Would blurting out your thought be an example of indecorum?

(Beck, McKeown, Kucan, 2002, p. 89)

vocabulary instructional routine
Vocabulary Instructional Routine
  • Learning new words representing known concepts
  • Introduce the word
  • Present a student-friendly explanation
  • Illustrate the word with examples
  • Check understanding
  • Review a group of words

(see video examples by Anita Archer, http://explicitinstruction.org/)

reception check1
Reception Check

Full Bars…Decent Reception…Dropped Call?

context relationship
Context-Relationship
  • Learning new words representing known concepts
  • Create a brief paragraph that gives the meaning of the word.
  • Follow the paragraph with a multiple-choice item that checks students’ understanding of the word.  
  • Show the paragraph, read it aloud, and read the multiple-choice options.
  •  Pause to give students a moment to answer the item, provide the correct answer, and discuss the word and any questions they have.
indolence
Indolence

Fortunately, none of my English 9 students could be described as indolent. Whereas an indolent student would try to sleep during class, slouch in her seat, procrastinate, and generally avoid exerting any effort, my students are diligent, hard-working, eager, and achievement-driven. I would be worried if someone described an English 9 R student as indolent, because it is worse than just occasional tiredness or laziness. Indolence implies a tendency to be lazy much of the time.

indolent means
Indolent means
  • often lazy
  • sometimes lazy
  • often hardworking
  • sometimes hardworking
reception check2
Reception Check

Full Bars…Decent Reception…Dropped Call?

building academic vocabulary a six step process
Building Academic VocabularyA Six-Step Process
  • Learning new words representing known or unknown concepts

Introduce word

Students generalize meaning

Students create nonlinguistic representation

Massed Practice

initial word learning

Engage students in word activities

Discuss words

Engage student “play” with words

Distributive Practice

all previous words

(Marzano, 2004)

experience observe
Experience & Observe
  • Strategy observer
    • What steps/processes did you observe?
  • Participant observer
    • What words, behaviors, evidence of student learning did you notice?
  • Participants
    • What did you learn? What worked for you? How did you feel as a learner using this strategy?
please answer
Please answer:
  • True or False: In linguistic study, polysemous words have different roots or etymology.
  • Rate your understanding of the word polysemous.
polysemous
polysemous
  • etymology (analysis of word origins & parts)
    • poly (Latin, many)
    • sema(sign)
    • -ous (adj.)
polysemous1
polysemous

Continental Divide

math function

polysemous2
polysemous

Ball (ME bal)

  • A round or roundish body or mass
  • Testis—often considered vulgar
  • A game in which a ball is thrown, kicked, or struck
  • A pitched baseball…that fails to pass through the strike zone

Ball (OF ballare)

  • A large formal gathering for social dancing
  • A very pleasant experience: a good time
please answer1
Please answer:
  • True or False
    • In linguistic study, polysemous words have different roots or etymology.
    • Words at the highest level of complexity are often polysemous.
please answer2
Please answer:
  • Should teachers focus their direct instruction of vocabulary on sesquipedalian terms?
  • Rate your understanding of the word sesquipedalian.
sesquipedalian
sesquipedalian
  • etymology (analysis of word origins & parts)
    • sesqui (Latin, half as much again)
    • ped (foot)
    • -ian (one that is, one who)
  • Examples:
  • antidisestablishmentarianism
  • pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis
  • floccinaucinihilipilification
sesquipedalian1
sesquipedalian

“Nancy and Sluggo”

Everything that coruscates with effulgence is not ipso facto aurous

. --All that glitters is not gold.

<http://www.wordsources.info/words-mod-sesquipedalian-1-16.html>

please
Please:
  • Rate your understanding of the word sesquipedalian.
  • Should teachers focus their direct instruction of vocabulary on sesquipedalian terms?
experience observe1
Experience & Observe
  • Strategy observer
    • What steps/processes did you observe?
  • Participant observer
    • What words, behaviors, evidence of student learning did you notice?
  • Participants
    • What did you learn? What worked for you? How did you feel as a learner using this strategy?
building academic vocabulary steps 1 3

Massed Practice

Building Academic Vocabulary Steps 1 - 3
  • Introduce word
    • Student friendly descriptions, examples, explanations, images, etc.
    • Must connect to students’ prior knowledge
  • Students generalize meaning
  • Students create nonlinguistic representation
  • Caution!
    • Monitor understanding carefully
    • May require more than one session
research on imagery as elaboration
Research on Imagery as Elaboration

Students who used imagery to learn vocabulary, on average, performed…

# of studies

(Pickering, 2007, ASCD presentation)

reception check3
Reception Check

Full Bars…Decent Reception…Dropped Call?

concept of definition map
Concept of Definition Map
  • Learning new words representing known concepts or those that can be accessed through student experience / prior knowledge
concept of definition map1
Concept of Definition Map
  • Teacher prepares map to clarify meaning of word in text.
  • Teacher models how to write a definition using the information on the word map.
    • e.g. “A potentate is a ruler who has a lot of power. The people do not elect potentates, and some stay in office for life. Some types of potentates are kings, dictators, and emperors.”
  • Students write their own definitions, verify with a dictionary, and revise or add to them as necessary.
semantic map
Semantic map
  • Clarifying, enriching the meanings of known words
  • Teacher presents important concept before reading.
  • Students brainstorm related words.
  • Teacher records and adds.
  • Class classifies to show relationships.
  • Teacher highlights target words.
  • Students add during/after reading.
  • Discussion is essential!