Cancer 101. What is Cancer?. Cancer occurs when cells in a part of the body begin to grow out of control. Normal cells divide and grow in an orderly fashion, but cancer cells do not. Cancer cells crowd out normal cells. . What is Cancer? .
What is Cancer? • Cancer occurs when cells in a part of the body begin to grow out of control. • Normal cells divide and grow in an orderly fashion, but cancer cells do not. • Cancer cells crowd out normal cells.
What is Cancer? • Sometimes cancer cells spread to other parts of the body through the blood or lymph system. • When cancer spreads to a new place in the body, it is still named after the part of the body where it started. If breast cancer spreads to the bones, it is still called breast cancer.
What Causes Cancer? External Factors – chemicals, radiation, viruses Internal Factors – inherited, hormones, conditions that affect immunity Lifestyle Choices – tobacco and alcohol use, sun exposure, poor nutrition, physical inactivity
Cancer Statistics In 2013, the American Cancer Society estimates that: • 1.6 million Americans will be diagnosed with cancer • 580,350 Americans will die from cancer this year- that’s more than 1,500 people a day
Leading Cancer Cases & Deaths in Women New Cases • Breast • Lung • Colon • Uterine Deaths • Lung • Breast • Colon • Pancreas
Leading Cancer Cases & Deaths in Men New Cases • Prostate • Lung • Colon • Urinary bladder Deaths • Lung • Prostate • Colon • Pancreas
Reducing Cancer Risk Through Lifestyle Changes Many cancers can be prevented by lifestyle changes or detected early enough to control or cure them. Maintaining a healthy weight, being active, not smoking and reducing your sun exposure can all reduce cancer risk.
Nutrition and Physical Activity As many as one-third of all cancer deaths in the United States are due to poor nutrition and physical inactivity.
American Cancer Society Nutrition Guidelines Maintain a health weight • Balance caloric intake with physical activity • Avoid excessive weight gain Adopt a physically active lifestyle • Adults: At least 30 minutes of moderate to vigorous activity five or more days a week • Children: At least 60 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous activity five or more days a week
Nutrition Guidelines Eat a balanced diet • Eat at least 2.5 cups of fruits and vegetables each day • Choose whole grains, not processed grains • Limit processed and red meat consumption Limit alcohol consumption • Limit alcohol intake to two drinks per day for men and one for women • Alcohol is an established cause of mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver and breast cancer
Physical Activity Studies show a link between losing weight and lowering the risk of getting certain cancers. Being overweight or obese is linked with an increased risk of developing the following cancers: • Breast (in postmenopausal women) • Colon • Uterine • Esophagus • Kidney
Physical Activity Examples of moderate physical activity include: • Biking • Jogging • Swimming • Walking briskly • Dancing • Gardening • Housework • Aerobics and yoga
Tobacco • In the U.S., tobacco is responsible for 1 in 5 deaths. • Smoking accounts for 30% of all cancer deaths and 87% of lung cancer deaths. • The risk of developing lung cancer is 23 times higher in males and 13 times higher in females smokers compared to lifelong non-smokers.
Tobacco Smoking is associated with several types of cancers, including: • Pharynx • Larynx • Esophagus • Uterine • Stomach • Acute myeloid leukemia • Cervix • Nasal cavity • Lip • Oral • Lung • Pancreas • Kidney • Bladder
Kicking the Tobacco Habit Most effective way to quit smoking involves multiple strategies: • Behavioral therapy • Nicotine replacement therapy • Non-nicotine prescription medication • Group therapy • American Cancer Society assistance *The American Cancer Society recommends consulting a physician before initiating any tobacco cessation therapies.
Reducing Sun Exposure To reduce the risk of skin cancer: • Limit unprotected exposure to sun, especially between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. • Wear protective clothing and hats. • Wear wrap-around sunglasses. • Use sunscreen rated SPF15 or higher. • Avoid tanning salons and sun lamps.
Skin Cancer Detection Methods Get regular check-ups Make sure your cancer-related checkups include a skin examination. Know your body Know your own pattern of moles, blemishes, freckles, and other marks so that you can notice changes during monthly self-examinations.
Contact the American Cancer Society American Cancer Society programs and services are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Visit cancer.org Call toll-free 1–800–227–2345