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Land Use: Forests, Rangelands, Parks and Wilderness. World Land Use. Types of Protected Lands in U.S. Multiple-use lands National Forest (U.S.F.S.) sustainable yield multiple use used for logging, mining, grazing, farming, oil, recreation, hunting and conservation

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types of protected lands in u s
Types of Protected Lands in U.S.
  • Multiple-use lands
    • National Forest (U.S.F.S.)
      • sustainable yield
      • multiple use
      • used for logging, mining, grazing, farming, oil, recreation, hunting and conservation
    • National Resource lands (BLM)
      • mostly in west and Alaska
      • multiple use
      • used for mineral and oil extraction/ grazing
types of protected lands
Types of Protected Lands
  • Moderately Restricted-Use Lands
    • National wildlife Refuges (USFWS)
      • 508 refuges
      • 24% designated as wilderness
      • protect habitats
      • oil, farming, hunting, mineral extraction are allowed as long as D of I says OK
types of protected lands5
Types of Protected Lands
  • Restricted-Use lands
    • National Park System (NPS)
      • 54 National Parks and 316 recreation areas, battlefields, memorials, etc.
      • Preserve and interpret the country’s historic and cultural heritage and protect wilderness areas
      • Parks:can be used for camping, hiking, fishing and boating
      • Rec areas: also mining and oil
      • 49% of National Park system is wilderness
types of protected lands6
Types of Protected Lands
  • Restricted-Use lands
    • National Wilderness Preservation System (NPS, USFWS, USFS)
      • 474 roadless areas in National Parks, wildlife refuges and national forests
      • Are preserved untouched for everyone to enjoy later
      • used for hiking, fishing, camping, non-motorized boating, hunting, horseback riding
      • roads, grazing, mining, buildings are prohibited
forest management
Forest Management
  • Most of the world’s forests are managed for paper and wood production
  • Paper production uses short rotation
  • Old-growth wood for furniture requires long rotation
types of forest management
Types of Forest Management
  • Even-aged management
    • forest is cut down, and regrowth trees are maintained at the same size and age
    • monoculture
    • industrial forestry
    • high industrial productivity low biodiversity
types of forest management10
Types of Forest Management
  • Uneven-aged management
    • variety of tree species are maintained at different sizes and ages
    • fosters natural regeneration
    • high diversity
    • long term production of high quality timber
  • Strategy decision is based upon return timetable of money required
strategy 1
Strategy 1:

Selective Cutting

intermediate-aged or old trees are cut

maintains uneven-aged stand

industry people say it is not profitable

can be destructive because many trees can be killed by removing a few large ones

strategy 2
Strategy 2:

Shelterwood Cutting

mature trees are removed in 2-3 cuts leaving even aged stand

natural looking forest that can be used for recreation

can be a good habitat for wildlife

strategy 3
Strategy 3:

Seed-tree Cutting

harvests most of a stand’s trees in one cutting

leaves a few remaining trees to re-seed the site

after new trees are established, remaining adults are taken

allows several species

good for wildlife and recreation

strategy 4
Strategy 4:

Clear-cutting

all trees are removed at once

site is artificially re-seeded

requires less money, skill

high return

eliminates recreational and wildlife use

strategy 5
Strategy 5:

Strip cutting

a strip of trees is removed that is narrow enough to be naturally re-seeded

the next year, a new strip is cut; etc.

forest is clear-cut over a decade or so will much less damage

strategy 518
Strategy 5:

Whole-tree harvesting

the entire tree, including roots are brought to plants and chopped into wood chips

most destructive methods, because it removes all plants material and most associated organisms

removes nutrients from soil

fires
Fires
  • Pros
    • many plant species require fires for seedling generation
    • destruction of old trees, providing light gaps, encourages growth of young trees
    • regrowth provides food for herbivores
fires21
Fires
  • Cons
    • can be destructive to huge plots of land and animal plant species
    • can threaten structures
    • can accelerate erosion
fire policy
Fire Policy
  • Prevention, Prescribed burns, Suppression
  • Historically, all fires have been suppressed
    • this caused the build-up of dead plant material
    • when fires erupted they were severe
    • all pros were killed
  • Since 1972 most natural fires have been allowed to burn
    • natural process of regeneration
    • Yellowstone fires is causing people to think about reversing the policy
threats to forests
Threats to forests
  • Pathogens and insects
  • Air pollution and Climate Change
  • Harvesting
    • wood
      • although per capita wood use is less, population is growing faster than decrease
      • regulations greatly support logging
    • but, forests are generally healthier than they have been
managing rangelands
Managing Rangelands
  • Definition
    • lands that provide foraging material for grazing animals
    • usually in areas to dry for irrigation
    • 42% is used for grazing livestock
    • 34% of U.S. land is rangeland
      • 84% of mammals species
      • 74% of bird species
    • Threats
      • overgrazing, destruction to riparian habitats
      • huge subsidies
      • read about coyotes and sheep
managing national parks
Managing National Parks
  • Established in the U.S. in 1912, most in West
  • Threats
    • not enough money to maintain them
    • many are too small to support large species
    • increased people visiting parks (500mil by 2010)
    • non-native species brought in
    • human activities on adjacent lands
    • air pollution
  • To do:
    • use all fees for management
    • refocus attention on preserving habitat
  • read about everglades
managing other wilderness areas
Managing Other Wilderness Areas
  • Definition
    • areas that are undisturbed by humans activities
    • should be at least 1,500 square miles
      • so that it is not affected by pollution, drilling, forestry and urban development
    • 34% of the earth’s surface
      • 30% of them are forests
      • only 20% are protected
solutions biosphere reserves
Solutions: Biosphere reserves
  • Core area - no disturbance
  • buffer zone - managed activities
  • transition zone - sustainable forestry and conservation