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Male alternative sexual strategies: When your not the biggest and the best. …or for that matter if your late to the part PowerPoint Presentation
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Male alternative sexual strategies: When your not the biggest and the best. …or for that matter if your late to the party. Interference Deception Sneak copulations. Male alternative conditional sexual strategies: Marine iguanas Larger males will interfere with copulations

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Male alternative sexual strategies: When your not the biggest and the best.

    • …or for that matter if your late to the party
  • Interference
  • Deception
  • Sneak copulations
slide2

Male alternative conditional sexual strategies: Marine iguanas

    • Larger males will interfere with copulations
    • Smaller males compensate with a pre-ejaculate of old sperm which seeps
slide3

Male inherited alternative sexual strategies: Paracerceis sculpta

  • The 3 male morphs with distinct reproductive tactics:
  • -males are largest possess elongated uropods and comprise 81% of the male population
  • -males are smaller than a-males, comprise 4% of male population
    • resemble females in their behavior and external morphology
    • invade spongocoels by mimicking female behavior;
  • -males are smallest, comprise 15% of aggregate male population
    • Use their small size and rapid movements to invade spongocoels (From Shuster 1992).
  • Male morph differences are the result of genetic differences.

In order for three morphs to exist they MUST exhibit equal reproductive success

slide4

Do we have different and evolved sexual strategies?

    • Phenotypic (conditional)?
    • Genotypic (inherited)?
slide5

Males just don’t give up: Sperm competition

  • The contest between sperm from two or more males for the fertilization of ova.
  • Penis morphology
  • Sperm morphology
  • Sperm concentration
  • Sperm motility and
  • Directional movement
  • Sperm longevity
  • Chemical composition of semen
slide6

Does mate guarding affect mating success?

  • Seychelles Brush-Warbler males vigorously guard females until they deposit their single egg
  • They then switch to egg protection and abandon mate guarding

Seychelles Brush-Warbler

slide7

Controls

Mate guarding affects mating success: During female receptivity

  • Experiment:
  • Place egg in nest to fool mate guarding males into switching to nest guarding
  • Measure extra pair male intrusions and copulations in control vs. manipulated
slide9

Mate guarding affects mating success: After the fact

Many insect males ride on top of the female for prolonged periods of time after mating to discourage other suitors.

Wheel Bugs

Tiger beetles

Millipedes

slide10

Do humans exhibit mate guarding behaviors?

Buss DM. Human Mate (2002). Guarding.Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 23 (4):23-9.

Men’s mate guarding, relative to that of women’s, is strongly triggered as a consequence of being mated to young and physically attractive women, being confronted by interested rivals who have superior economic resources or prospects, and having a mate who displays signs of sexual involvement with a rival. Women’s mate guarding, relative to that of men’s, is triggered as a consequence of being mated to men high in income and status striving, rivals who are more physically attractive, and having a partner who shows signs of emotional involvement with another woman. Behavioral output of mate guarding adaptations range from vigilance to violence.   

slide12

Mate choice: Its all about the genes, looks are an indicator

Better looking/behaving

Healthy male

Fewer parasites

Sexual selection

Less predation

Good genes

Pre-sexual selection

Healthy offspring

Variability in looks/behaviors

Variability in predator defenses

Variability in parasite succeptability

The cycle of consistent selective pressure for genes that indicate quality can cause runaway selection.