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Population Ecology

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Population Ecology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Population Ecology. Population Demographics. Demographics are the various characteristics of a population including, Population Size, Age Structure, Density, and Distribution Demographics allow one to determine the ecological and evolutionary relationships between various species populations.

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population demographics
Population Demographics
  • Demographics are the various characteristics of a population including, Population Size, Age Structure, Density, and Distribution
  • Demographics allow one to determine the ecological and evolutionary relationships between various species populations
population size
Population Size
  • Population size is represented by the variable N
  • Peterson Population Estimating is a common method for determining Population Size (N)
  • Population Growth can be represented as either ‘exponential’ or ‘logistic’
peterson population estimate
Peterson Population Estimate
  • The Peterson Estimate is a mark and recapture method divided into two sample periods (Precensus and Census)
peterson estimate calculation
Peterson Estimate Calculation
  • During the Precensus, individuals are captured and marked (M)
  • During the Census, individuals are captured, some of which have marks (R) and some which do not. The total captured on the Census equals (n).
  • Peterson Estimate = (n x M) / R
peterson estimate assumptions
Peterson Estimate Assumptions
  • Assumes that no births, death, immigration, or emigration occur during the census period
  • Assumes that mark are permanent and do not adversely effect the organism
population growth
Population Growth
  • Factors that increase population size include ‘births’ an ‘immigration’
  • Factors that decrease population size include ‘deaths’ and ‘emigration’
  • The Net Reproductive Rate (r)

r = [(births + immigration) – (deaths + emigration)]

exponential growth
Exponential Growth
  • Population Growth (G)

G = r x N

  • New Population Value (Nx)

N1 = (r x N) + N

N2 = (r x N1) + N1

logistic growth
Logistic Growth
  • Population Growth (G)

G = r x N [(K-N) / K)]

  • New Population Value (Nx)

N1 = (r x N [(K-N) / K)]) + N

N2 = (r x N1 [(K-N1) / K)]) + N1

age structure
Age Structure
  • Age structure is the number of individuals in each of several to many age categories
population density
Population Density
  • Population Density is the number of individuals in a specified area of a habitat
population distribution
Population Distribution
  • Population Distribution is the general pattern in which individuals or a population are dispersed through a specified area
  • Clumped, Uniform, or Random
survivorship curves
Survivorship Curves
  • Type I
  • High Survivorship until fairly late in life, then a large increase in death
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Type II
  • Fairly constant death rate at all ages
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Type III
  • Low survivorship early in life due to high death rate but if they reach adulthood they survive long
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