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  1. Plus –que parfait Participeprésent et du gérondif

  2. Plus-que parfait • The french past perfect or pluperfect is used to indicate an action in the past that occurred before another action in the past. The latter can be either mentioned in the same sentence or implied.

  3. Exemples:- • 1. Il n’avait pas mangé(avant de faire sesdevoirs). • He hadn’t eaten (before doing his homework). • 2. Nous voulionsteparlerparceque nous ne t’avions pas vu hier. • We wanted to talk to you because we didn’t see you yesterday.

  4. The pluperfect is also used in si clauses to express a hypothetical situation in the past contrary to what actually happened. • Exemples:- • 1. Si tum’avaisdemandé, j’auraisrépondu. • If you had asked me, I would have answered. • 2.Nous y serionsalléssi nous avionssu. • We would have gone if we had known.

  5. When the auxiliary verb is être, the past participle must agree with the subject. • When the auxiliary verb is avoir, the past participle may have to agree with its direct object. • Aimer(auxiliary verb is avoir) • J’avaisaimé nous avionsaimé • Tuavaisaimévousaviezaimé • il/elleavaitaiméils/ellesavaientaimé • Devenir(auxiliary verb is être) • J’étaisdevenu(e) nous étionsdevenu(e)s • Tuétaisdevenu(e) vousétiezdevenu(e)(s) • Il étaitdevenuilsétaientdevenus • Elle étaitdevenueellesétaientdevenues

  6. PARTICIPE PRÉSENT ET DU GÉRANDIF • 1. The french present participle can be used to talk about what someone is doing. The construction “je suismangeant”(the literal translation of I am eating) does not simply exit in french- you must use the present tense: je mange. To emphasize the ongoing nature of an activity, you can use the french expression être en train de: je suis en train de manger – I am eating right now. • 2. The french present participle cannot be used after another verb. “J’aimelisant “ does not exist, to say I like reading , you must use the infinitive- j’aime lire.

  7. When used as a verb the french present participle expresses an action that is simultaneous with, but not necessarily related to the action of the main verb. There are two possible uses for this in french: 1. Modify a noun Exemples:- A. Sachant le danger, je n’ysuis pas allé.(knowing the danger, I didn’t go). B. Avantfaim, il a mangé tout le gâteau.(being hungry, he ate all of the cake).

  8. 2. Express an action that is related to the main verb. This present participle, called le gérandif or “gerund”, nearly always follows the preposition EN. It can serve three purposes: • A. Describe an action that is related to and simultaneous with the action of the main verb usually translated as “while” or “upon”. • Exemples: • Elle lisait en mangeant.(she read while eating). • Il ne peut pas parler en travaillant.(he can’t talk while working).

  9. B. explain how or why something happens, usually translated by “by”. • Exemples:- • C’est en pratiquantquevous le faitesbien.(it is by practicing that you do it well). • Elle a maigri en faisant beaucoup de sport.(she got thin by exercising a lot). • C. Replace a relative clause: • Exemples:- • Les médecinsparlantfrancais(qui parlentfrancais) • Doctors who speak french • Les membresvoulantpartir(qui veulentpartir) • Members wishing to leave