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Understanding Inference Presented by Angela Maiers Angelamaiers.com
A Closer Look At: INFERRING
Prediction: Right or Wrong, our “guess” will be confirmed
Inference: Logical and Justifiable, Able to ‘make a case’ – not a guess
The clues are telling me that... • When I see this, it makes me think that… • I am noticing… • This makes me conclude that… • When the author said________, I thought… • This clue is important because… • This makes me wonder if… • When I read this, I am reminded of… • I think the author want me to… • When I read this, I think… • I believe this means______ because______ • _ • This part lead me to believe that…
Combine Clues Draw From Experience + = Logical Conclusion Content Schema Inference
What is going on? A red-faced child with tears in her eyes sits on the sidewalk in front of the house. She is wearing a helmet. A small bike with broken chain is lying on the grass in front of her. Next to it is an unzipped backpack. Some of the contents from the backpack are lying on the sidewalk.
PROBLEM # 1 Ignoring Information • Guessing • Jumping to Conclusions • Ignoring Author’s Signals
He pulled his reindeer coat around his shoulders. He was glad to have his sealskin boots and his heavy trousers to guard him against the stinging wind. He snapped the whip and the dogsled took off with a jolt.
PROBLEM # 2 Issues with Schema • Lack of Schema • Fragmented Schema • Inaccurate Schema
Problem Two: Issues With Schema A young man and his father were driving home from school. Their car was involved in a serious crash. The young man, who had been badly injured in a car accident was rushed to a nearby hospital’s emergency room. Accordingly, the hospital’s brain surgeon is paged. Upon seeing the patient, the surgeon exclaims, “My God, my God, I can not operate on this patient! He is my son!!”
Author & S C H E M A
PROBLEM # 3 Identifying Task • What Should the Reader Do? • 35 Types of Ifferences • Multiple Genre & Text
YOU TRY IT!!!!! He put down $10.00 at the window. The woman behind the window gave $4.00. The person next to him gave $3.00, but he gave it back to her. So, when they went inside, she bought him a large bag of popcorn.
Problem Three-Task Awareness: What Are We Asking Readers to Do? • Theme • Feelings/Emotion • Traits • Location/Setting • Conflict Problem • Motivation • Attitudes • Intention • Author Purpose • Genre • Bias • Outcomes • Causations • Pt. of View • View Point • Mood • Tone • Relationship • Data Analysis • Agent/Instrument
INFERRING What will you say now?