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Chapter 9: Genes, Mitosis, and Cytokinesis. DNA  Deoxyribonucleic Acid Central for reproduction Development Day-to-Day functioning Contains genome  the complete collection of that organism’s genetic information Exists in units called genes ½ from mom + ½ from dad.

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9 1 an introduction to genetics
DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid

Central for reproduction


Day-to-Day functioning

Contains genome the complete collection of that organism’s genetic information

Exists in units called genes

½ from mom + ½ from dad

9.1 An Introduction to Genetics
dna contains instructions for protein production
How do genes control the development and functioning of living things?

Instructions genes

Workers proteins

Recall: enzymes chemically active proteins that enables of speeds up reactions in living things

How is the gene read to make a protein?

Think of the nucleotides as letters in the alphabet.

Now a gene is going to arrange those letters a certain way to make a sentence for specific instruction for building a protein.

Letters Nucleotides

Sentence  Gene

Recall: DNA nucleotides





DNA Contains Instructions For Protein Production
the architecture of dna

Makes protein production possible

Looks like a spiral staircase


sugar (deoxyribose) + phosphate bone


NucleotidesA, G, C, & T

The way in which they are ordered codes for a specific protein

The Architecture of DNA
the path of protein synthesis
The DNA helix unwinds (in nucleus)

The gene that codes for a protein is read and copied

The copy of the gene is in the form of mRNA

Leaves the nucleus to find a ribosome workbench

mRNA is read by the ribosome

The ribosome brings the proper amino acids that match up with the mRNA

Amino Acids are linked together

The mRNA is completely read and the protein folds up

The Path of Protein Synthesis
genetics as information management
Genetics The study of Heredity




Transfer of information encoded in Chemical form

More like a cookbook recipe

The DNA gave the instructions and all the combined ingredients made the product

Genetics as Information Management
from one gene to a collection
Genome The entire collection of Genes

Vast history of information

Human genome estimated 30,000 genes

Information passed down over 3.5 billion years of evolution

Most cells in your body contain a complete copy of an organisms geneome

The cell only reads the part of the genome that is needed endocrine cell VS a lymphatic cell

Cells duplicate therefore their genetic information must be duplicated

From One Gene to a Collection
the path of study in genetics
Genetics lies in the path of reproduction

Allows things to be


Self sustaining entities

The Path of Study in Genetics
9 2 an introduction to cell division
How do organisms grow and develop?

Always through cell division

Cells come from other cells

Cells come from cells by dividing

25 million cell divisions occur each second

Why do cells divide?

They die and need to be replaced

Before “cell division” you must have “cell duplication” also known as  replication

Mitosis the apportioning of two identical quantities

Cytokinesis the splitting of the cellular material

9.2 An Introduction to Cell Division
the replication of dna
Strands unwind

Each single strand serves as a template

A new strand is created by adding new nucleotides to the template

The result two identical strands of DNA

Each double strand contains an old strand and a new strand

The Replication of DNA
9 3 dna is packaged in chromosomes
DNA double helix is packed in the condensed form of a chromosome

The DNA in each cell comes divided up and packaged into individual units of DNA

Different organisms have different numbers of Chromosomes

Humans 46


Eukaryotic Chromosomes

Made up of DNA and Proteins Chromatin

9.3 DNA is Packaged in Chromosomes
matched pair of chromosomes
In Eukaryotes:

Chromosomes come in pairs

Not exactly alike

One from mom and one from dad

Defining a matched pair

Each set of matched pair contains similar materials for a gene

If chromosome #1 is responsible for eye color both will have instructions for eye color

the difference is that each parent can have a different eye color

Homologous Chromosomes “homologous” the same in size and function

Matched Pair of Chromosomes
x and y chromosome
Exception to the Rule

Sex chromosomes

Of the 23 pairs

22 autosomes nonsex chrmosomes


one homologous sex chromosome XX


X and a Y

X and Y Chromosome
chromosome duplication as a part of cell division
Note: Cell contains other organelles that must be doubled.

Cell division has two components


Separation of a cell’s duplicated chromosome prior to cytokinesis


the physical separation of one cell into two daughter cells

Chromosome Duplication as a Part of Cell Division
the cell cycle
Three processes


Genetic duplication

Cell division

Two Phases

Interphasethe portion of the cell cycle in which the cell carries out its work and, in preparation for division, duplicates its chromosomes

Mitotic Phasethe portion of the cell cycle that includes both mitosis and cytokinesis

The Cell Cycle
9 5 variations in cell division
Animal Cell

Protein filaments cleave the two cells

Plant Cell

Problem cell wall

Send cell wall and plasma membrane components in between the cells


Bacteria Single celled

Singular circular chromosome

Grows Septum to separate them


Bacteria divide ever 20 minutes

Human cells 24 hours

9.5 Variations in cell division