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GEOGRAPHY. Semester Final Review. Globes. Three-dimensional representation of the earth Disadvantage, globes are not easily portable. Topographic Map. A representation of natural and man-made features on the earth. Hemisphere. Each half of the globe

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geography

GEOGRAPHY

Semester Final Review

globes
Globes
  • Three-dimensional representation of the earth
    • Disadvantage, globes are not easily portable
topographic map
Topographic Map
  • A representation of natural and man-made features on the earth.
hemisphere
Hemisphere
  • Each half of the globe
    • Earth divided into Northern, Southern, Eastern and Western Hemispheres
latitude
Latitude
  • Imaginary lines that run E to W
    • Includes the Equator
tsunami
Tsunami
  • Giant wave
    • Caused by earthquakes, underwater landslides etc.
plate tectonics
Plate Tectonics
  • Pieces of earths crust that float on magma
      • Interaction of plates is what shapes the earth
mechanical weathering
Mechanical Weathering
  • Process that breaks rock into smaller pieces
    • Ice crystals, plant roots, drilling are all examples
glacier
Glacier
  • Large, long lasting mass of ice
    • Glaciation: changing of landforms by slow moving glaciers
greenhouse effect
Greenhouse Effect
  • Layer of gasses created by the burning of fossil fuels, traps heated air.
    • Cause of warming trends
deciduous
Deciduous
  • Broadleaf trees
    • ie. Maple or Oak
diffusion
Diffusion
  • Spread of new ideas
    • Resources like the television and internet help to spread new ideas
democracy
Democracy

Citizens hold political power, either directly or through elected reps.

central business district cbd
Central Business District (CBD)
  • Core of the city, almost always based on commercial activity
    • Land is very expensive
st lawrence seaway
St. Lawrence Seaway

North America’s most important deep water shipping route

Includes the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence Seaway

andes mountains
Andes Mountains
  • Mountain range that stretches from:
    • North America (Rockies) to
    • Central America (Sierra Madre) to
    • South America (Andes)
cerrado brazil
Cerrado: (Brazil)

Savannas, flat terrain, moderate rainfall, suitable for farming

rainforests
Rainforests
  • Dense forests made up of different species of trees
    • Tropical Wet Climate Zone
    • Ex: Amazon
slash and burn technique
Slash and burn technique
  • Vegetation cut, burned, ash acts as fertilizer for crops
    • Negative: destruction of rainforest
north atlantic drift
North Atlantic Drift

Warm water flows near Europe’s West Coast

polders
Polders

Process that reclaim land by diking and draining

chernozem
Chernozem
  • Black soil
    • One of the most fertile soils on the planet
    • Located in Russia
continentally
Continentally

Effect of distance on climate

taiga
Taiga
  • South of tundra
    • Largest forest on earth
      • primarily coniferous trees (needles- cone bearing)
ural mountains
Ural Mountains
  • Separate Northern European and Western Siberian Plains from each other
    • Recognized as divider of Europe and Asia
volga river
Volga river
  • Longest river in Europe flows into Caspian Sea
    • 60% of Russia’s river traffic
lake baikal
Lake Baikal
  • Deepest lake in the world (1+ miles deep)
    • North to South 400 mi. long
    • Holds 20% of worlds fresh water
escarpment
Escarpment

Steep slope with a flat plateau

sahara
Sahara
  • Largest desert in world.
    • Temp. H: 136.4° (day),
    • Below freezing at night
aquifers
Aquifers
  • Underground stores of H²O.
    • Known as an oasis when they reach surface