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Children Working on the Street. Yoshie NOGUCHI, Senior legal officer, IPEC. Contents. Children “working” on the street General overview on child labour What is child labour (CL), and its worst forms (WFCL)? Challenges/lessons in addressing CL and WFCL on the street

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children working on the street

Children Workingon the Street

Yoshie NOGUCHI,

Senior legal officer, IPEC

International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

contents
Contents
  • Children “working” on the street
  • General overview on child labour
  • What is child labour (CL), and its worst forms (WFCL)?
  • Challenges/lessons in addressing CL and WFCL on the street
  • Data collection: CL on the street
  • Eliminating WFCL by 2016 !

International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

children working on the street1
Children “Working” on the street
  • Economic activities
    • selling small objects,
    • shoe-shining,
    • portering
  • Sexual exploitation (prostitution)
  • Illicit activities
    • scavenging,
    • begging
  • Criminal acts
    • drug dealing,
    • pick-pocketing

International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

child labour statistics
Child labour statistics
  • 215 million in child labour, globally
  • 115 million of these children in hazardous work

International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

ilo global report 2010
ILO Global Report 2010
  • Child labour continues to decline, [3% decline between 2004-2008] but more modestly than previously

[10% decline between 2000-2004]

  • On present trends, the goal of eliminating the worst forms of child labour by 2016 will not be reached

International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

different trends girls and boys
Different trends: girls and boys
  • Fewer girls are now in child labour.
    • declined by 15%.
  • Worrying trend for boys
    • Increase by 20% among older boys (15-17)in hazardous work

International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

regional trends
Regional trends

Asia and Pacific – significant reduction down to 96m (14.8 % of children)

Latin America and Caribbean – slight reduction down to 10m (9%)

Sub Saharan Africa – further increase to 58m (28.4%)

No separate figure for Europe or developed countries – lack of surveys

International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

crc and child labour
CRC and child labour
  • The right to be protected from economic exploitation (§32) = the protection fromchild labour (ILS)
  • The right to education,health …
  • Non-discrimination
  • Two issues under the Op Protocols(sexual exploitation, armed conflict)= Worst Forms of Child Labour

International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

what is child labour
What is Child Labour?

Child labour to be eliminated =

  • Worst Forms of Child Labour (C182)and
  • Work done by a child below the minimum age for that kind of work(specified by national law, in line with C138 and CRC article 32(2))

See: UN SG Report to GA 2009 [A/64/127]

International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

what is child labour1
What is child labour?

18y

14/15/16

International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

worst forms of child labour
Worst Forms of Child Labour
  • Children in slavery, forced or compulsory labour, child trafficking

Including debt bondage, forced recruitment for use in armed conflict

  • Children used in prostitution and pornography
  • Children used in illicit activities
  • Children in hazardous work

See : ILO C182, Article 3

International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

c 182 coverage
C 182: coverage
  • All sectors of economic activitywithout any exception
  • Girls and boys under 18 years
  • Special attention for most vulnerable e.g. minorities, girls, very young, and on the street !
  • Worst forms of child labour as urgent priority target for action

International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

child labour and its worst forms on the street
Child labour and its worst forms on the street
  • Forced labour, including in begging, child trafficking
  • Sexual exploitation
  • The use of children in illicit activities or crime (e.g. drugs)
  • hazardous work= “work likely to jeopardize/harm a child’s health, safety or morals”

International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

challenges in addressing child labour on the street
Challenges in addressing child labour on the street
  • Outside the scope of “child labour” legislation- absence of an employer, or formal relation- not considered in the “hazardous work” list
  • The children may be perceived as delinquents rather than victims of WFCL
  • Interest in / access to education ?
  • “Decent Work” prospect for these children ?
  • Social protection measures may focus adults or families: e.g. Cash Transfer, income support
  • Maybe lacking ID, birth certificate, legal status...

International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

some good practice examples
Some good practice examples
  • Listing “street vending” among the hazardous work and prohibit for children (Lebanon)
  • Comprehensive rehabilitation for girls on the street and/or at risk of sexual exploitation (Russian Federation)
  • Mobile schools: facilitating the transition from street to school (Romania)
  • Mobilizing public action by raising awareness among teachers and students (Paraguay) – SCREAM (Supporting Children’s Rights through Education, the Arts and the Media) methods

International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

some lessons learned
Some lessons learned
  • Clearly define “what is not acceptable” in labour, criminal, or children’s rights or other laws;
  • Consider and address difficulties of enforcement
  • Raise awareness among stakeholders of the specific risks [of working street girls]; thus help raise the issue higher on the political agenda
  • Gradually prepare the children for social / family integration
  • Involve government entities from the beginning, giving them ownership
  • Mobilize children and young people; conveying the message to the public (families, community and institutions) and also the business community
  • Respect and adapt to the socio-economic and cultural characteristics of each country and each community

International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

child labour statistics1
Child labour statistics

SIMPOC* (Statistical Information and Monitoring Programme on Child Labour) help countries in :

  • household-based surveys,
  • establishment-based surveys,
  • baseline surveys, and
  • rapid assessments

[* www.ilo.org/ipec/ChildlabourstatisticsSIMPOC ]

International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

child labour statistics 2
Child labour statistics (2)
  • Need to develop methodologies
  • Need to define concepts for statistical operation < legal definitions
  • Resolution by the 18thInternational Conference of Labour Statisticians concerning statistics of child labour (ICLS Resolution) - 2008

International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

challenges in collecting data on child labour on the street
Challenges in collecting data on child labour on the street
  • Household-based surveys can gather information only on children living with their family and working on the street
  • Establishment-based surveys may not cover any child labour on the street
  • Children’s accessibility, availability and interest in the data collection

International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

rapid assessment
Rapid Assessment
  • Methodology jointly developed by ILO and UNICEF
  • Especially useful for some WFCL
  • Qualitative information obtained through a rapid assessment will apply with certainty only to the limited sample population and context

[See: manuals available on SIMPOC website]

International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

capture recapture method
Capture-Recapture method
  • See the UCW example(Study on child beggars in Dakar)
  • Previously used (2002 Global Report on Child Labour) in estimating the scale of the WFCL other than hazardous work – a huge challenge for us all in CL statistics

International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

ethical considerations in child labour data collection
Ethical considerations in child labour data collection
  • The best interest of the child

Pre-research issues

  • Assess the safety risk to the child of participating in the survey (and to the researchers): especially for children exploited in / by organize crime
  • Informed consent for all interviews; in a child-sensitive way; with the right to say “No” at any time

International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

ethical considerations in child labour data collection 2
Ethical considerations in child labour data collection (2)

Issues during research

  • Language and logic: to avoid jargon and adapted to each child (age, sex, culture…)
  • Trust: to be built patiently on relationship
  • Conditions of listening: carefully, with positive and neutral expression
  • Pay and promises: consider carefully

Post –research issues

  • Right to privacy / sharing info & outcome

International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

accelerating action against child labour
Accelerating action against child labour
  • an increased global effortto tackle child labour and
  • enhanced Government commitment
  • reach out to children at special risk: e.g. on the street !

International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

further measures
Further measures
  • international cooperation
  • social dialogue and cooperation= Partnership with business and trade unions
  • advocacy and mobilisation
  • decent work for youth/adults

International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

the global action plan
The Global Action Plan
  • Eliminating the worst forms of child labour by 2016 !
    • Roadmap 2010 (The Hague)
    • Attention: children on the street

International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

thank you for your attention
Thank you for your attention !

International Programme on the

Elimination of Child Labour

4, Route des Morillons

CH-1211 Geneva 22

Switzerland

Tel.: (+41 - 22) 799 81 81

Fax: (+41 - 22) 799 87 71

E-mail: ipec@ilo.org

Child labour website:

http://www.ilo.org/ipec

International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour