Unit 6. Text A. Animal Intelligence. Text A. Part Ⅰ Background Information Part Ⅱ Pre-questions Part Ⅲ Comprehension Questions Part Ⅳ Language Points Part V Post-questions Part VI Text Structure Part VII Translation. Text B. Background Information:.
Part Ⅰ Background Information
Part Ⅱ Pre-questions
Part Ⅲ Comprehension Questions
Part Ⅳ Language Points
Part V Post-questions
Part VIText Structure
1.D 2.B 3.A
1. Do you believe animals have intelligence? If yes, please cite an example to illustrate your point.
2. Besides human beings, what animal do you think is the most intelligent on the earth?
3. It is believed that animals of the same species may communicate with one another through a certain ‘language’. Do you believe that? Can you imagine in the future human beings can also learn various kinds of animal ‘language’ and communicate with them?
1. Is the author satisfied with the way to study animal intelligence with experiments designed to teach human signs?
2. When will the animals probably do their best thinking, according to the author?
1. Do vets, animal researchers and zoo keepers encounter animal intelligence every day?
2. What does the author think about the stories told by vets, animal researchers and zoo keepers?
1. What were the responses of Colo respectively when she was offered peanuts and pineapple? What did they reveal?
1. Why did Colo broke the key chain and gave Jendry only a link?
1. Cite one or two examples from the textbook to illustrate an animal can show skill in handling money.
1. How did Chantek manage to eat all the fruit and at the same time demonstrate his virtuous habit of sharing?
1. Why, according to behaviorists, would an animal want to cooperate with a human?
2. What does the author think?
1. In what way was Orky believed to be the most intelligent, according to Gail Laule?
1. What happened when the keepers tried to return the baby whale to the tank?
1. What did Orky do to help his baby whale?
1. Is there any other evidence of animal intelligence which can be found? What is it?
2. How did Melati succeed in getting two oranges?
1. What did Towan learn from Melati?
1. If intelligence is meant to serve the survival of a species, which is cleverer, sea turtle or human being?
1. over: during, in the course ofExamples:Over the years John has become more and more patient.The poor little boy fell asleep over his homework.
2. controversy: (an) argument about something over which there is much disagreementExamples:enter into (a) controversy with sb. over/about sth.beyond controversyThe point in controversy is not whether we can do it, but whether we should do it.
3. surround: be or go all around (sth. or sb.)Examples: The school is surrounded with many trees.It is believed that every magnet is surrounded by a magnetic field.c.f. enclose:He enclosed a cheque for $5,000 with the letter.encircle:He carefully encircled every misspelled word on the page.
4. explore: ① examine thoroughly, learn aboutExamples:The conference explored the possibility of attracting more foreign fund.The researchers are exploring ways and means of solving the problem.② travel over (an area) for the purpose of discoveryExamples:He explored three continents by canoe.It is his dream to explore the fascinating space when he grows up.
5. serve: to be good enough or satisfying for (a purpose or the needs)Example:One room had to serve as both bedroom and living room.related expressions:serve someone right: to be a good punishment for someoneif (my) memory serves (me): if I remember correctly
6. encounter: (formal) meet, esp. unexpectedlyExamples: The more dangers you encounter, the harder you should push forward.On their journey they encountered an English couple.
7. reveal: make (sth.) knownExamples:They were not willing to reveal any details of the arrest.A newspaper once revealed that he had wanted to become a middle school teacher.Howard now revealed a certain talent for writing.
8. convince: make (sb.) feel sure by the use of argument or evidenceExamples:He was convinced that her mother was innocent.This convinced me of his honesty.
9. perform: to do, carry out (a piece of work); to fulfill (a promise, order, etc.); to act (a part)Examples:to perform a task/ a promise/ a surgical operation/ one’s duty/ a part in a play
10. dominant: ruling; stronger, more powerful, or more noticeable than other people or thingsExamples:My sister had a very dominant nature; we all had to do what she said.The mansion was built in a dominant position on a hill where everyone could see it.dominate: v. to have or exercise controlling influence or powerExamples:Her desire to dominate her husband has caused trouble in her family.The strong dominate over the weak.
11. make a deal: reach an agreement or arrangement, esp. in business or politics; do a dealExample:Let’s make/ do a deal with each other and stop quarrelling.
12. on the scene: present; appearingExample: This great leader came on the scene just when his country needed him.
13. only to: ‘Only’ can be used before an infinitive to introduce an event which happens immediately after the previous one, and which is rather surprising or unfortunate.Examples:He hurried to the station, only to find the train is pulling out.I had tried this years before, only to receive a polite refusal.
14. negotiate: discuss in order to come to an agreement.Examples:Paul is negotiating for a job worth $18,000.He negotiated a trade agreement with Brazil.
15. stake: sth. that may be gained or lost; interestExample:He lost his stake when the horse finished last.related expressions:at stake: at risk; dependent on what happens; able to be changed or lost
16. maintain: ① continue to do or have (sth.)Examples: maintain public order/ a speed of 40 miles an hour/ an open mind on a question/ a position/ the lead till the end of a race/ an increase/ close contact with sb./ the friendship for 20 years② state as trueExamples:maintain one’s opinionHe maintained that he was innocent.
③ support with moneyExample:He took on too much work to maintain his family.④ keep in good condition, by making repairs to, and taking care ofExample:maintain one’s car/ a building/ the railway
17. relieve: free (sb.) from pain, anxiety, etc.; ease (pain, anxiety, etc.)Example: The news relieved him of some of his embarrassment.relieved: a. feeling glad because sth. unpleasant has not happened or is no longer happeningExamples:I am relieved to hear that it is not my fault.He felt enormously relieved that they had accepted the decision so calmly.She has a relieved look on her face.
18. figure: v. (not formal) consider, believeExample: I figured that you’d want some tea.n. ① any of the number signs from 0 to 9② an important person③ the human shapes considered from the point of view of being attractively thinrelated expressions:figure out: work out, understand by thinkingExample:I can’t figure out why she married such a person.
19. trade A for B: buy, sell, or exchange (a product, goods, etc.)Example:The early settlers on this island traded copper for corn.
20. undertake: carry out, take upon oneself (a task, etc.)Examples:Most shareholders have undertaken to accept the offer.undertake the responsibility/ a task/ more work/ a journey/ a detailed investigationc.f. overtake: come up level with from behind (and usu. pass)Example:A car overtook me although I was going very fast.
21. extend: (cause to) stretch or reach, make larger or longer(意为‘扩充’、‘伸长’，指空间范围等的扩大，长度，宽度的延伸及时间的延长。)Examples:The factory compound extends eastward as far as the railway.The hot weather extended into October.c.f. expand: (cause to) grow larger(意为‘扩大’、‘使膨胀’，指范围、体积扩大。)Examples:Iron expands when it is heated.Our foreign trade has expanded during recent years.
22. switch: change, shift (used with ‘to’)Examples: I would like now to switch to quite a different topic.He switched his attention back to the magazine.
23. catch up with: ① talk to someone who one has no seen for some time to find out what he/she has been doingExample:Once in a while John goes to town to catch up with a close friend of his.② come up from behind, draw level withExample:When will Britain catch up with Japan in industrial production?③ begin to have a damaging effect onExample: Too much drinking and smoking finally caught up with him.
24. envy: v. wish that you had a quality or possession that another person hasExamples:It would be unfair to envy him his good fortune.n. feel envy at/ out envy/ become the envy of (someone)Example: It has a robust economy that is the envy of its neighbours.
25. cooperate: act or work togetherExamples: The workers cooperated with the management and the police.The two companies cooperated with each other in building a plane that neither country could afford by itself.Let’s all cooperate to get the work done quickly.
26. in sb.’s interest(s): for or to sb.’s advantageExamples:It is in your interest to put your point of view first.It is not in the interests of any of us to have a weak government.
27. go far: be successful, succeedExamples:The boy is clever and will go far (in his job).Records such as these go far toward explaining why so many people are killed on our highways every year.
28. assess: judge the quality, importance or worth ofExamples:She looked the house over and assessed its rough market value.They assessed his house at $50,000.
29. thrive: grow strong and healthy, develop wellExamples:Trees can hardly thrive in the desert.Are you the type of person who thrives on activity?thriving: healthy, happy, successful, or strongExamples: thriving economy/ business/ market/ community
30. emergency: an unexpected and dangerous event which must be dealt with at onceExamples: an emergency airport/ brake/ call/ door/ landing; emergency measures/ a state of emergency/ in case of emergency
31. go wrong: stop developing well; make a mistakeExamples: Their relationship went wrong after the birth of their child.Something must have gone wrong with the door, so I can’t open it.Where did I go wrong?
32. halt: v. (cause to) stopExamples:He took a step and halted.The firm ran into foreign exchange problems which halted its imports of nylon.n. a stop or pauserelated expressions:come to a haltExample: The car came to a halt just in time to prevent an accident.
33. throw up: ① (informal) vomitExample:The unpleasant smell made her feel so sick that she began to throw up.② give upExample:I hear you’ve thrown up your job and are now looking for a new one.
34. size up: carefully examine a situation or person in order to make a judgmentExamples:size up the possibilities for action/ the goods for sale… people sizing each other up as if for a fight
35. release: set freeExamples:This failure released him from any obligation to take further exams.They were released from personal responsibility after the decision had been made.
36. reach: the distance that one can reachExamples:put the bottle within/ beyond/ out of one’s reachbeyond the reach of one’s imagination/ human power
37. evidence: sth. that gives a reason for believing sth., traceExamples: We saw evidence everywhere that a real effort was being made to promote tourism.There was no evidence of quarrels between them.related expression:in evidence: able to be seen and noticedExample: Violence was particularly in evidence in the towns.
38. attempt: v. make an effort at, tryExamples:He attempted the examination but failed.I attempted to speak but was told to be quiet.I attempted walking until I fell over.n. an effort made to do sth.Examples:He failed in his attempt to pass the examination.The young birds manage to fly several kilometers at their first attempt.
39. deceive: try to make (sb.) believe sth. that is falseExamples: He was deceived into lending a large sum of money to his untrustworthy cousin.His unkempt appearance deceived the staff into believing that he was a student.They try to deceive themselves that everything is all right.(‘deceive’ can be used in the sentence pattern ‘deceive sb. into doing sth.. Besides ‘deceive’, these verbs, such as ‘frighten’, ‘trick’, ‘talk’, ‘force’, ‘persuade’, ‘shock’ and ‘cajole’, can also be used in the sentence pattern.)
c.f. cheat:日常用语，指用不诚实的手段取得所需的东西，常用于骗取钱财的场合。用作vi.时，可指在考试、买卖、竞赛中的欺骗行为。Example:They cheated a man out of his money.deceive:常指歪曲事实，隐瞒真相或造成错误印象，使人上当受骗。有时不一定意味别人有意的欺骗。Example: I was deceived in his apparent competence.
40. hold out: ① extendExample:He held out his hand in friendship.② last in spite of difficulties, endure, hold onExample:The town was surrounded but the people held out until help came.related expressions:hold back: control, esp. feelings; prevent the development of.
Examples: Bob held back his anger and avoided a fight.You could become a good musician, but your lack of practice is holding you backhold on: wait (often on the telephone), hang on; continue in spite of difficultiesExample:Hold on a moment, please.hold up: delayExample:The building of the bridge has been held up by the bad weather for a week.
41. gaze: look steadily for a long or short period of time (often followed by ‘at’)Example:We gazed at the stranger, wondering who he was.n. a steady fixed lookExample: She turned her gaze from one person to the other.
42. give in: ① admit a loss, surrender, yieldExamples: The boys fought until one gave in.Don’t give in to him/ his opinion.② hand inExample:Give your examination papers in when you have finished.
43. survive: remain alive in spite of, continue to live or exist afterExamples:To his great relief, his son survived the car accident.We survived, although others died in the accident.She survived her sons.
44. wipe out: get rid of or destroyExamples:The enemy wiped out the whole nation.Epidemics wiped out the local population.
45. horizon: (usually plural form but with singular meaning) the limit of one’s thoughtsExample:widen/ broaden/ expand one’s horizons
1. Do you think the way the author mentions in the text will work in exploring animal intelligence? Why and why not?
2. Compared with the traditional approach of designed experiments to teach animals human signs, do you think the author’s new approach is more effective? Why and why not?
3. With their intelligence, human beings have changed the nature so greatly that many animals are endangered because of this. Is it possible that sometime in the future, animals will take their revenge on human beings with their intelligence?
The author puts forward the idea that personal experience of those who are in close contact with animals are more convincing evidence than that any experiments can provide.
Animal intelligence can be found in their attempts to deceive.
Some animals are intelligent enough to know how to bargain with people.
Some animals can assess a situation and act accordingly.
summary of the textText Structure:
Part VIII Key Words Exercise
Part IX Comprehension Questions
Part X Text Structure
1. The door did not lock, but at least it ______ a reasonable amount of privacy.A) assured B) ensured C) entrusted D) conserved
2. He crushed the beetle deliberately, which is very ______ of him.A) proud B) thoughtfulC) typical D) appreciative
3. He sang a number of songs _____ by the piano played by his wife.A) composed B) comparedC) accompanied D) compiled
4. It is reported that more than 10,000 flowers from different parts of the world will be ______ in that park.A) exhibited B) exposedC) extinct D) exploited
5. _____ yourself _____. Don’t behave like a baby!A) pull … through B) pull … inC) pull … over D) pull …together
6. Our country has _______ amazing changes in the last twenty years.A) registered B) extractedC) experienced D) disengaged
7. His adventure in the mountains can ____ a good story.A) make up B) makeC) be regarded D) provide
8. Mike _____ Rosemary at the first when they met.A) took to B) took inC) took up D) took for
9. Yesterday she went downtown to make some _______.A) bargain B) buyingC) purchases D) samples
10. The latest studies of bee colonies ______ the most elaborate social structure next to humans.A) set in B) hold outC) put up with D) shed light on
11. What you said was true but ______ unkind.A) nevertheless B) accordinglyC) however D) yet
12. There are more than two hundred and fifty _______ of shark.A) types B) kindsC) species D) groups
13. She looked round her with a rather _______ expression.A) bare B) vacantC) hollow D) empty
14. He is _______ the greatest writer alive in the country.A) thought of as B) thought asC) referred as D) referred to
15. I must make a ______ between travelers and tourists.A) instinct B) distinctC) extinction D) distinction
1.B 2.C 3.C 4.A 5.D
6.C 7.B 8.A 9.C 10.D
11.A 12.C 13.B 14.A 15.D
1. What do many people who study animal behaviour think of love between animals? Do they think it is true love?
1. What is the author’s opinion on animal love?
2. What example does the author cite to illustrate his point?
1. How does Ado respond to his mate’s death?
2. What does this reveal, according to the author?
1. When, according to Lorenz, are two geese most likely to fall in love with each other?
2. What comparison does he adopt to describe this phenomenon?
1. How did the male parrot mentioned in these two paragraphs react to the pretty young female?
2. How did it react to the old and plain female?
3. What does the behaviour of the male parrot reveal?
1. What does the example of Timmy reveal?
1. Why did the zoo director defend his decision to separate the animals so that they can breed successfully?
2. What did Jane Goodall write about the emotional life of chimpanzees?
1. In what way do coyotes make good symbols of devotion?
2. Besides coyotes, are there any other symbols of marital faithfulness in animals?
1. How did the pair of coyotes behave after mating to show their romantic love?
2. What do you think is the essence of the love of both people and animals?
1. What did Tibby look for through her strange habit? What did she find?
2. How did Gavin Maxwell know the man who called used a walking stick?
3. What does Tibby’s behaviour reveal?
1. Why are some people doubtful at the idea that love doesn’t exist among animals?
Many people who study animal behaviour don’t think animals experience true love.
An animal raised by another species will show affection for a member of that species.
Examples can be found that animals do become sad when they lose their mate.
There is evidence of love and loyalty between members of a pair.
Animals may fall in love dramatically
Whether animals experience or not needs to be further explored.Text Structure: