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Leadership and Personal Values. Avimanyu Datta, College of Business, Washington State University. Introduction . Benjamin Franklin formed the Junto Goals were community fellowship and service Character was a concern His values were:. Temperance Order Resoluteness Industry

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leadership and personal values

Leadership and Personal Values

Avimanyu Datta,

College of Business,

Washington State University

  • Benjamin Franklin formed the Junto
    • Goals were community fellowship and service
    • Character was a concern
    • His values were:
  • Temperance
  • Order
  • Resoluteness
  • Industry
  • Sincerity
  • Justice
  • Moderation
  • Cleanliness
  • Humility
  • Some organizations view values as a requirement for success
    • Johnson & Johnson CEO James Burke took Tylenol off the market after seven people died during poisoning events
  • Results of a study of the financial performance of companies with written value statements:
      • Net income increased by a factor of 23 during a period when the GNP grow by a factor of 2.5
  • Values are a social glue
    • They provide structure and stability for people with diverse backgrounds
  • Jack Welch, former CEO of General Electric, sees management values as a source of corporate identity
    • Values provide guidance for members who are independent decision makers
  • Values:
    • Can mask hypocrisy
    • Must enter into daily practices of the organization
    • Must reflect enduring commitments
  • Leaders must:
    • Examine their own value systems
    • Put good intentions into actionsthat others can witness
  • Things that reduce the character and strength of the organization:
    • Unclear values
    • Failure to enforce the values
    • Lack of agreement on core values
  • Author Leon Wieseltierwrote:
    • The problem with society is that people believe in too much
    • Much is too easily acquired and too thoughtlessly held
when to clarify or reinforce values
When to Clarify or Reinforce Values
  • Red flags:
    • Members lack understanding about how they should behave as they attempt to meet goals
    • Different individuals and groups have different value systems
    • Top leaders send mixed messages about what is important
    • Day-to-day life is disorganized
    • Members complain about the organization
    • The organization has values, but does not practice them
  • Management author Peter Drucker states:
    • Each organization has a value system influenced by its task
      • Health is the goal in every hospital in the world
    • For an organization to perform at its highest level:
      • Leaders must believe that what the organization does has value to people and society
  • In A Business and Its Beliefs: The Ideas That Helped Build IBM, Thomas Watson, Jr. explains the importance of values:
      • To survive and achieve success, an organization must have a sound set of values
      • Leaders must adhere to those values
      • To meet challenges, organizations must be able to change everything about itself
      • Be open to change, but always remain true to core values
  • Watson also said that IBM was successful because of three core values:
    • Respecting the individual
    • Giving the best customer service
    • Performing every job with excellence
values and the importance of courage
Values and the Importance of Courage
  • Values in the a workplace:
    • Honesty
    • Respect
    • Service
    • Excellence
    • Integrity
values and the importance of courage12
Values and the Importance of Courage
  • When people define character:
    • What they say is important
    • What they do is more important
    • What they sacrifice for is most important
  • In its highest form, character is based on a value system that is known, cherished, stated, lived, and lived habitually
  • The highest form of living by one’s values is caring to the point of personal sacrifice
values and the importance of courage13
Values and the Importance of Courage
  • Character and leading by values require courage:
    • Philosopher-psychologist Rollo May explains the importance of courage:
      • Courage is the foundation that underlies and gives reality to all other virtues and values
      • Without courage, love pales into dependency and fidelity becomes conformism
  • “Courage” comes from the French word coeur meaning “heart”
      • It makes possible all the psychological virtues
values and the importance of courage14
Values and the Importance of Courage
  • Leadership situations are characterized by:
    • Ambiguity
    • Uncertainty
    • Danger
  • Leaders must act in spite of these factors
  • Leadership requires courage to act and live by one’s convictions
  • Italian diplomat and political writer Niccolo Machiavelli believed:
    • The best individuals adapt to market forces and become masters of manipulative relations
    • Flattery, deceit, and murder may be necessary to win and retain power
    • People should never cultivate private virtues that in public life would prove political suicide
    • People should develop vices if helpful to one’s rule
    • Ends justify means and might makes right
personal integrity
Personal Integrity
  • German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche believed:
    • Human resoluteness, born of independent judgment, was the highest good
    • Individuals should be independent in thought and strong in conviction
    • Nature is filled with conflict spilling over into society
    • The best humans exhibit moral virtue (wisdom, justice, courage, and other ideals), regardless of loss or gain
personal integrity17
Personal Integrity
  • German philosopher Marvin Heidegger believed:
    • In the Greek ideal of nobility
    • That adhering to personal principles in the face of social pressure to conform is important
    • That personal integrity is good, regardless of the results
    • That people must choose their lifestyle and commitments carefully
duty and right action
Duty and Right Action
  • Immanuel Kant, author of Criticism of Practical Reason and Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals, believed:
    • People must choose the obligations that become their duty
    • People must be responsible for their own actions
    • A person with character will choose duty to conscience and will not succumb to base desires
    • Acts from a good motive and sense of duty are good, regardless of the consequences
  • This view greatly influenced Western civilization
duty and right action19
Duty and Right Action
  • Personal conscience and duty are seen in the words of Israeli stateswomanGolda Meir:
    • “If I felt it was the right thing to do, I was for it, regardless of the possible outcome”
  • When faced with an ethical question, a person with character tries to sort right from wrong
    • Traditional definitions of good have guided Western culture
    • “People must stand for something, otherwise they will fall for anything”
full swing values
Full-Swing Values
  • Full-swing values:
    • Used to assess the strength of one’s values
    • Important for people in leadership positions
    • A full-swing is needed to hit a “home run”
      • True for questions of right and wrong, good and bad
  • Axiology is a branch of philosophy dealing with values
full swing values21
Full-Swing Values
  • Five Points:
    • Point 1: know one’s values
    • Point 2: cherish one’s values
    • Point 3: declare one’s values
    • Point 4: act on one’s values
    • Point 5: act habitually on one’s values
your personal value orientation
Your Personal Value Orientation
  • Cases of Jim, Jane, Jack, Jill, and John
    • Jim-knows values, has not examined others
    • Jane-knows and cherishes values
    • Jack-knows, cherishes, and declares values
    • Jill-knows, cherishes, declares and acts on her values
    • John-knows, cherishes, declares, acts and does it habitually
full swing values24
Full-Swing Values
  • In every field, the highest level of leadership isfull-swing
    • Leaders are impelled to act because the act is deemed good
    • Conscience dictates that the act is the right thing to do
  • The quality of doing the right thing for the right reason is called integrity
    • It is possessed by all truly great leaders
leadership and values
Leadership and Values
  • Why is it important for an organization to have values?
  • What is the role of the leader in establishing and enforcing these values?
      • There are many ideas on these questions
      • Few are as influential as those of the philosopher Plato
leadership and values26
Leadership and Values
  • In Plato’s story The Republic, he retells the “Myth of Gyges” and the invisible ring
    • A shepherd finds a magic ring that makes one invisible
    • He uses the ring to eavesdrop, steal, and trespass
    • In a short time, he amasses wealth, kills the king, seduces the queen, and rules the land
leadership and values27
Leadership and Values
  • Moral of the story:
    • Given power without accountability, an individual may do deeds that are harmful
    • People need the values of a just society and the oversight of wise and caring leaders
    • A republic is needed for the good of all individuals
  • A leader with false or harmful values can be injurious to others
    • Hitler Stalin, and many other tyrants in history are examples
    • Hence, leaders need to be caring, good, and strong
leadership and values28
Leadership and Values
  • Culture shapes a leader’s values, which influences actions
    • African Society:
      • Ubuntu represents a collection of values, including harmony, compassion, respect, human dignity, and collective unity
      • Each of us is human through the humanity of other humans
    • A Zulu maxim: …a person is a person through other persons: my humanity is caught and bound inextricably in yours
how leader behavior influences
How Leader Behavior Influences
  • Leaders who are immoral and non-principled:
    • Are difficult to forgive
    • Lack moral authority
    • Are not trusted or respected
  • The leader’s values determine the rightness and wrongness of what they do
    • The leader’s actions set the tone for other’s behavior and performance on the job
    • Leaders who are honest, unselfish, and dedicated help the group succeed
how leader behavior influences30
How Leader Behavior Influences
  • Warren Buffett’s order to senior managers when the took over the failed firm of Salomon:
    • Instantaneously and directly report any legal violations or moral failures by employees
  • Buffet understood that basic values are crucial for building trust
    • Honesty and responsibility are crucial for building trust, which is the bedrock of organizational survival and growth
  • Almost all business schools now require ethics courses
how leader behavior influences31
How Leader Behavior Influences
  • In general, a leader’s belief or value system will determine his/her success
    • Six values of caring leaders:
      • Honesty
      • Consideration
      • Responsibility
      • Persistence
      • Excellence
      • Commitment
how leader behavior influences32
How Leader Behavior Influences
  • Overall value of the caring leader is to serve
    • The caring leader focuses on the welfare of:
      • Customers
      • Employees
      • Shareholders
      • Community
  • Values affect everything a person does or is
    • What values do I wish to promote?
    • Are my actions helping accomplish that goal?
personal values
Personal Values
  • Aspects of society require leaders to commit to certain ideals and goals
    • This is addressed in “The Study of Values” byGordon Allport, Phillip Vernon, and Gardner Lindzey
evaluating personal values
Evaluating Personal Values
  • All values on the questionnaire are positive
  • Culture influences personal values
  • The questionnaire provides an overall value orientation
  • A person’s life allows maximum expression of personal values
  • Value systems are firm by the time most people reach adulthood
  • Different organizations reflect and endorse different value; leaders must promote the value system
personal value questionnaire
Personal Value Questionnaire
  • Points to Remember:
    • Does not measure other important factors, such as aptitude, personal interests, temperament, or morality
    • Different values can enrich a group or organization