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Industry and Transportation

Industry and Transportation

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Industry and Transportation

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  1. Industry and Transportation 7.1

  2. Objectives • Summarize the key developments in the transportation revolution of the early 1800s. • Analyze the rise of industry in the United States in the early 1800s. • Describe some of the leading inventions and industrial developments in the early 1800s.

  3. Key Parts • Transportation Revolution • Technology Sparks Industrial Growth • Inventions Transform Industry and Agriculture

  4. Introduction • Read section 7.1 • Fill in the table on pg. 228 with the causes and effects of the transportation revolution and industrialization.

  5. The Transportation Revolution • When the United States began to expand they learned quickly that travelling by land was going to be very difficult and costly. • Some states began chartering companies to operate turnpikes, these were roads for which users had to pay a toll. • Most of these turnpikes failed except the National Road that was made of crushed rock. • Funded by the government the road extended west from Maryland to the Ohio River in 1818.

  6. Cont. • The first major advance in transportation was the development of the steamboat. • Robert Fulton designed the first commercially successful steamboat- the Clermont. • The steamboat made it much easier to move upstream. • It used to take four months to go from New Orleans to Louisville Kentucky, once the steamboat arrived it went down to six days.

  7. Cont.. • A second transportation advance was the construction of canals. • The most famous during this era was the Erie Canal. • Completed in 1825 it ran 363 miles across New York State from Lake Erie to the Hudson River. • This helped make New York City the nation’s greatest commercial center.

  8. Cont… • Railroads were the most dramatic advance in transportation in the 1800s. • In the United States horses pulled the first American trains. • Quickly inventors figured out how to make steam powered engines. • The American rail network expanded from 13 miles of track in 1830 to 31,000 miles in 1860.

  9. Technology Sparks Industrial Growth • The transformation of technology and manufacturing became known as the Industrial Revolution. • This changed the nation’s economy, culture, social life, and politics. • A man named Samuel Slater defied English law and came to the United States and built the first water-powered textile mill in 1793.

  10. Cont. • Francis Cabot Lowell in 1811 toured England’s factory towns to gather secret information about their manufacturing. • He returned and created a company called the Boston Associates, in 1813 they built their first mill and continued on building them along the Merrimac River. • This is the first time you begin to see commercial factories.

  11. Cont.. • The company would hire young single women from local farms to work in the factories under strict rules. They were called “Lowell girls” • This factory work changed the lives of thousands of people. • The machines increased the pace of the work and did most of the difficult work so the companies could high less skilled workers at a lower cost and increase production. Average wage was $1 per week.

  12. Inventions Transform Industry and Agriculture • The invention of interchangeable parts by inventor Eli Whitney changed the world of manufacturing. • This allowed people to get replacement parts for an object rather than disposing of it or having to forge something to replace the part with.

  13. Cont. • In 1837 Samuel F.B. Morse invented the electric telegraph. • This allowed electrical pulses to travel long distance along metal wires as coded signals. • By 1860 the nation had 50,000 miles of telegraph lines. • Despite the growing size and power of the nation’s factories, agriculture still remained the largest industry.